Death of Death Penalty in Ghana

Recommended reading for those interested in the pros and cons of the death penalty.
(webmaster FVDK)

Death of the death penalty in Ghana

Published: November 3, 2022
By: Prosper Andre Batinge – Graphic Online, Ghana

For some time now, Ghanaian penal advocates tracking liberal global criminal justice crusaders have been trying to kill the death penalty with only near successes.

The real chance at abolishing the death penalty in Ghana emerged in the case of Dexter Johnson v the Republic [2011] 1 SCGLR 601. But a majority decision of Ghana’s Supreme Court, against the spirited protestations of the minority, especially Justice Samuel Kofi Date-Bah (as he then was), declined and passed the buck to Parliament.

In throwing the ball from the Supreme Court to the chambers of Parliament, then Justice Kwasi Anin Yeboah (now the Chief Justice of Ghana) wrote: “I am aware that the death penalty has been abolished in other jurisdictions, especially in the Commonwealth countries.

“I would, like my brother Dotse JSC, advocate statutory intervention like other jurisdictions where they have degrees of murder instead of judicial intervention by way of interpretation.” [Dexter Johnson at 703.]

Bills

Parliament now has a clear chance to abolish the death penalty. The Madina Constituency lawmaker, Mr Francis-Xavier Sosu, is a front advocate of the Death Penalty Bills: The Criminal and Other Offences (Amendment) Act 1960 (Act 29) and the Armed Forces (Amendment) Act 1962 (Act 105).

These Bills seek to amend sections 46, 49, 49a, 180, 194 and 317a of Act 29 and sections 14, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 40, 78, and 79 of Act 105. The Bills were gazzetted on Tuesday, June 28, 2022.

These Bills seek to abolish the death penalty for ordinary offences, still leaving in the purgatory of the death penalty those convicted of serious crimes like High Treason and Treason.

Cruel

Ghana has not executed anybody convicted and sentenced to the death penalty since 1993. In strict terms and in practice thus Ghana appears not a death penalty state.

But the nation’s trial courts continue to impose the death penalty on persons upon conviction. Some 165 convicted persons were on the death row at the end of 2021; the number is now more than 170.

The death penalty offends the right to life etched in crucial human rights conventions, covenants, and declarations.

The death penalty also offends African customary law. Ubuntu was influential in abolishing the death penalty in South Africa. The South African Constitutional Court in S v Makwanyane held that the death penalty violated the right to human dignity, underscoring that the right to dignity was an integral part of ubuntu.

The death penalty is too cruel and has proven parallel to the values of evolved human sensibilities. The death penalty appears a relic of backward societies of a backward era.

The psychological torture to people on death row is immense. They wait for the never-arriving day of their execution. Some have taken their own lives during this uncertain period of waiting.

As well, the psychological effect of the death penalty on executing officers is no less tormenting. The introduction of so-called mercy killing such as injecting convicts to die peacefully and painlessly has not lessen the cruelty of the practice on both the victim and the killer.

Innocent people – not infrequently – are accused, convicted, and executed for crimes, of which they are not culpable. Fairly recently, Mr Emmanuel Tetteh was released from prison after he was wrongfully sentenced to death for murder. He did 33 years behind bars. At his release, he was 75 years.

The case against abolishing the death sentence, therefore, often makes both theoretical and common sense. But on few occasions, the argument against the death penalty is difficult to advance with clear conscience in a society of persistence instances of ritual murders.

Some of our compatriots believe that they can sacrifice their fellow human beings for money, and they, according to allegations too numerous to ignore, kill others with the hope of attaining wealth.

Some of the victims of ritual murders are young citizens in their prime with full potential of their lives in front of them, promising lives cut painfully short by evil people. It is with pain that I still believe and argue that even a ritual murderer ought not to suffer the death penalty.

Parliament

Writing for the majority in the case of Dexter Johnson supra, Justice Jones Dotse (as he then was) opined that “the time has possibly come for the Parliament of Ghana to seriously consider whether to have a policy shift in the mandatory death penalty regime imposed on those convicted of murder.” {[2011] 1 SCGLR 601 at 702.}

More than a full decade after the Supreme Court’s indication, and after years of campaigns to end the death penalty, Parliament appears willing to kill the death penalty in the case of ordinary crimes.

As Parliament commences a new session of its lawmaking duties last Tuesday, October 25, 2022, it should ensure that the death penalty ends with the end of the Third Meeting of the Second Session of the Eighth Parliament of the Fourth Republic.

The writer is a lawyer/doctoral fellow at Fordham Law School, N.Y., USA: 
E-mail: pbatinge@fordham.edu

Source: Death of Death Penalty in Ghana

Atrocities, witchcraft, superstition and ritualistic cannibalism during Liberia’s First Civil War (1989-1997)

A former ULIMO commander stands trial in France accused of war crimes, human rights violations, murder and cannibalism.

The rebel fighters pictured here are not related to the story below

For shortness sake reference is made to Civitas Maxima’s monitoring of the arrest and trial of Kunti Kamara, a former ULIMO commander who was arrested in France in 2018. Kunti Kamara is accused of war crimes and human rights violations including torture, rape, murder and cannibalism committed during Liberia’s first civil war (1989-1997) in Foya, Lofa County, Liberia. His trial started in Paris/France on October 10.

Ritualistic activities including ritual murder and acts of cannibalism are well-known in Liberia. This site has reported frequently on ritual murder cases, the discovery of mutilated bodies, and unexplained disappearances which allegedly are linked to ritualistic activities. Election periods and the back-to-back civil wars (1989-1997; 1999-2003) are notorious peaks in the occurrence of ritual murders.

As far back as the 1970s, President William Tolbert (1971-1980) condemned ritualistic murders (‘An eye for an eye‘) and refused to grant clemency to seven convicted ritual murderers in what was perhaps Liberia’s most notorious ritual murder case (‘the Harper Seven‘). In 2005, the Head of the LNTG, Gyude Bryant, warned presidential candidates not to commit ritual murders to boost their chances. President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf (2006-2018) on more than one occasion spoke out against ritualistic murders. In 2017 people in Bong County protested against the ‘election year ritual killings’. More recently, during the Weah Administration (2018 – present), Liberia is again confronted with a wave of mysterious deaths, unexplained disappearances and ritual murders which has led politicians, religious leaders, civilians, to condemn these practices, urging President Weah to act.

Kunti Kamara is not the first or only rebel commander who’s being accused of ritual murder and cannibalism. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission mentions in its 2009 Final Report that hundreds of Liberians were murdered for ritual purposes during the two civil wars. In his book The Mask of Anarchy (1999), the late Stephen Ellis accuses the leader of the National Patriotic Front of Liberia (NPFL) who started Liberia’s first civil war, Charles Taylor, of drinking human blood during a juju ritual. Also Gibril Massaquoi, a RUF commander in neighboring Sierra Leone and a key-witness in the SCSL trial of warlord-turned-president Charles Taylor, was accused of murder for ritual purposes, but acquitted in April (2022).
(webmaster FVDK).

“I would never eat human heart” –
Kunti Kamara denies accusation before a French War Crimes court

Published: October 18, 2022
By: Prue Clarke, Front Page Africa – Monrovia, Liberia

PARIS, France – The former Ulimo commander Kunti Kamara, on trial here for war crimes and crimes against humanity in Liberia’s civil wars, had his first chance to make a substantive response to the allegations made against him in the first five days of this trial.

Under questioning from the judges, civilian lawyers and prosecution lawyers Kamara denied all the accusations that victims have made against him of torture, rape, murder of civilians and “barbarism” in the town of Foya in Lofa County, Liberia between 1993 and 1994.

Kamara told the nine-person jury and four alternates that the accusations of cannibalism – that he roasted and ate the heart of a civilian who had allegedly reported his crimes to international observers – made him sick.

“Since I was arrested nothing bothered me in the trial like what they’re talking about now. Eating human beings,” Kamara said. “Even if I spend 100 years in jail I will not admit to eating a human being’s heart. Each time I hear it I want to vomit.”

“Since I was born until today I never eat pork,” said Kamara a Muslim. “Why should I eat human being heart? I have nothing to say. I am innocent. I don’t know them today. I don’t know them tomorrow.”

Kamara denied that he had ever knew anyone who had said they ate human heart including in rituals of the Poro, a traditional African society.

“Since I was small that is a rumor in the ear,” he said of Poro human sacrifice and consumption of human flesh. “But I never met anyone who said they ate heart.”

Kamara insisted that the Ulimo committed no atrocities against civilians in the four-month period he was with them in Foya though he conceded Ulimo may have committed atrocities elsewhere during the war.

He said Ulimo in Foya was under the ultimate command of Ulimo Commander Dekau. Kamara said his mandate was only as battalion commander in charge of platoons “on the frontlines”. He denied any leadership role in the town over civilians.

Kamara acknowledged Ulimo fighters that victims have identified in this trial “Ugly Boy”, “Fine Boy” and Alieu Kosiah, convicted of war crimes in Switzerland in 2021, were all with him in Foya but Kamara claimed he hardly ever saw them.

Kamara blamed the accusations that have brought him to trial here were part of a “plot” orchestrated by “a clique” led by Fayah Williams, the late deputy director at Global Justice and Research Project, the Liberian justice activists.

TRC Commissioner Massa Washington is interviewed by New Narratives’ Anthony Stephens after her testimony at the Paris trial

Late in the evening Massa Washington, the former commissioner of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, gave a powerful testimony that could prove decisive in the trial.

It was designed to answer questions that jurors may have had about whether they should be passing judgement on a Liberian for crimes committed 30 years ago in a country a long way away. That was a question French journalists were asking eachother on the sidelines of the trial.

“These trials are important because they give them people of Liberia justice,” an emotional Washington told the jury. “They give us hope that one day we’ll be able to get justice with our own judges, our own prosecutors, on our own soil. In the meantime we are grateful that some of the people who committed these gross violations of human rights who are in this country, in the US, in every country in the world where they find them they can try to bring them to justice. In the absence of our government addressing accountability these trials are the Liberian people have.”

Washington thanked the jury.

“It sends a message that we belong to the universal human race,” Washington said. “It says that the world has not forgotten Liberia. It says that we all share that common human dignity. We have the same needs. We feel the same pain. We thank you for the opportunity to tell some of these stories. I hope this has provided an important clarification for why this trial is important.”

Washington told some of the horrors she had personally witnessed as a journalist in Monrovia during the first civil war. The jury was riveted by her testimony which made clear that the testimony they were hearing from witnesses here was just a fraction of the myriad atrocities that had been committed during the war. She told of rapes of girls as young as five and of elderly women. She said her work with women made it clear to her than many of the elderly women had not come forward to the TRC hearings because of the stigma.

She told the story of an 82-year-old woman who told her she was made a war wife.

“’I was raped all the time by boys who could have been my grandchildren,’” Massa quoted the woman as saying. “Her story is just one story that represents thousands of stories. The rebels were so bad that when people were on checkpoints trying to get away from the fighting the rebels were raping the wives in front of the husbands. They even forced sons to have sex with mothers in front of the family to destroy the men. They took the young girls away.”

Earlier in the day the fifth victim to testify against Kamara detailed the alleged torture, killing and cannibalism of a schoolteacher in Foya that all victims have claimed was directed by the defendant.

He also talked more broadly of the suffering of people in Lofa during Ulimo’s occupation of the town. His telling of the experience of the women he had planned to marry was a harrowing example of the broader suffering of the people.

“M. was my girlfriend and Ugly Boy took her as a sex slave,” the victim told the Paris court talking of the now deceased perpetrator that many victims have alleged was Kamara’s lieutenant who followed his orders to commit many of the crimes. The court has ordered press to withhold victims’ names for their security.

“This was another blow to me,” the victim told the court. ”I really planned to marry her. The first time I saw her after the war, it was painful, but it had happened. She was not at fault. I saw her but the stigma was too heavy. I could no longer take her as a wife. By tradition anyone who takes a wife after that is easily rejected from society. In addition, because of her time as a sex slave, she conceived. I am feeling it for her now because her situation is too deplorable.”

The trial continues Tuesday with more testimonies from victims about the murder of a woman in Lofa.

This story is a collaboration with New Narratives as part of the West Africa Justice Reporting Project. 

Source: Liberia: “I would never eat human heart” Kamara Tells War Crimes Court as TRC Commissioner Washington Makes a Powerful Case for the Legitimacy of the French Trial

And:

Liberia: “You are Kundi. You killed my sister”
A third victim identifies Kamara as perpetrator in War Crimes Trial

The three judges in the trial of Kunti Kamara in Paris, France (Credit: Leslie Lumeh/New Narratives)

Published: October 19, 2022
By: Anthony Stephens and Prue Clarke with New Narratives, Front Page Africa – Monrovia,

PARIS, France – On Tuesday a third victim identified Kunti Kamara, on trial for torture, cannibalism and crimes against humanity in the Paris Court, as “Co Kundi” the rebel commander who allegedly committed atrocities in Foya, Lofa County, Liberia.

The man was one of four plaintiffs who have brought the case against Kamara here in Paris, France where Kamara was living when he was arrested in 2019 after French investigators built a case against him.

“You are Kundi,” the man said turning to look at Kamara directly, barely containing his obvious emotion and rage. The plaintiff pointed at Kamara who was sitting behind his lawyers in a protective glass case. “I know you very well. You the one that killed my sister.”

The now elderly man told the court Kamara arrived at his house in Foya in late 1993 after the man’s sister’s baby had died. He alleged Kamara gave the family $L100 for their pain.

Soon after that Kamara allegedly ordered the victim’s sick and half naked sister – the mother of the child – dragged from the house. He accused her of witchcraft. The victim said Kamara and his troops had taken over the house for themselves and already had his wife, son and mother in custody at the time. Kamara did not know the man, who was standing with a crowd, was a member of the family.

The victim was overcome with tears as told the court that he had watched as Kamara put three bullets in his sister’s head.

Within months the man’s mother was also dead from illness. The victim blamed Kunti for the grief the murder of his sister had caused her.

“She cried every day,” he said. “So she became sick from not seeing my sister.”

The lawyer for the civil parties asked the victim if he had anything to say to Kamara but he took the opportunity to issue a warning to the judges instead.

“I’m very happy to see all the officers to take care of Kundi,” he said pointing to the court officers who accompany the defendant at all times. “This government should not leave Kundi to come back to Liberia.”

Kamara rejected all the allegations as he has done consistently throughout this trial.

“I’m just shocked,” an agitated Kamara told the president of the court Thierry Fusina. “I don’t know him. These people, it’s my first time to see them in my life. I don’t know them! They are lying on me. I’m not a criminal.”

Earlier in the day another witness to the alleged murder of the sick woman accused of witchcraft gave evidence that appeared to contradict testimony that he gave to an earlier investigating judge in the case.

Source: Liberia: “You Are Kundi. You Killed My Sister” – A Third Victim Identifies Kamara as Perpetrator in War Crimes Trial

After two suspected ritual murders, in Nimba County, Liberia, tribal devils become detectives

Unfortunately, ritual murder are no exception in Africa’s oldest republic. Experience teaches us that ritualistic murders in Liberia are on the increase during elections campaigns and when important political appointments are expected – which though does not exclude other circumstances explaining a rise in ritual killings. In the past four to five years, ritual murders have been reported in at least seven of Liberia’s fifteen counties including Montserrado, Bomi, Bong, Nimba, Grand Bassa, Grand Kru and Maryland counties. However, the absence of discoveries of mutilated bodies or reports of ritual murders should not be interpreted as the absence of these criminal and outdated superstitious practices. By definition, occult practices and ritualistic murders take place in secret.

In the article below reference is made to a prominent person who held a very senior position in the Weah Administration and who allegedly is said to be implied in the reported case of two young boys who were murdered for ritual activities. It should be underlined here that this is not the position of the webmaster of this site (FVDK). Moreover, I uphold the principle that no one is guilty unless found guilty by an independent judge after an impartial, public trial.

The original article shown here includes a number of links referring to other, previously published articles containing relevant and related information. I have decided to also include these articles in this posting in order to avoid the (future) situation that the original articles are no longer available or accessible after they have lost been lost in cyberspace, unfortunately not an uncommon phenomenon.

All articles together sketch a reality in Liberia which is rarely shown but which exists. No use to deny or to ignore it. A reality of traditional practices and beliefs, a reality of cultural history including respect for the ancestors. Notwithstanding the foregoing, it goes without saying that a ‘war on ignorance and superstition’ is a must in Africa’s oldest republic, which was created in 1847 by African Americans.

Finally, my June 25 posting, Liberia: Traditional devils arrest six men for allegedly killing two children for rituals, refers to the same case.
(webmaster FVDK)

Liberia: In Nimba, Tribal Devils Become Detectives

The suspects in the deaths of two children in Boe Bonlay Town, District #6, Nimba County.  

Published: October 4, 2022
By: Ishmael F. Menkor – Daily Observer, Liberia

…. When the National Police could not solve a double homicide in their rural community, the people of Beo Bonlay Town, Nimba County, employed the most unconventional means.

It was a breakthrough in a double-murder case that would have been written off as an anomaly except that, in the context of numerous unsolved gruesome murders across Liberia in recent years, police investigations have consistently come up with the same results as they did in this one — “no evidence” or “no foul play” — case closed. 

But the people of Beo Bonlay Town, District # 6, Nimba County, would not take ‘no’ for an answer. In an unprecedented move, they summoned their tribal devils to confirm their hunch and solve what they believed were the murders of two innocent boys who had gone missing and later turned up dead in separate locations. 

It all started on June 9, when the two boys, Handsome-boy Mahn, 9 and Zayglay David, 4, went missing after they returned from the farm in the afternoon.

Hours after their disappearance, the community launched an immediate manhunt for the children. Unfortunately they were found dead with their bodies dumped in two separate wells about 20 minutes apart. 

The deaths of the two children sent shockwaves of fear and  concern among citizens of the district, especially when the first batch of investigators from the Tappita Police Detail, led by the detail commander and the 15-man coroner jury, ruled that there was no foul-play. 

But reports reaching the Daily Observer said an initial examination of the corpses showed that the boys’ necks had been broken. There was also an alleged ‘erasing mark’ on the coroner jury’s report, but this is yet to be verified. 

“The devil”, it is said, “is in the details.” Or is it? 

Unconvinced by the “no foul-play” conclusions of the coroner jury and the police, the citizens this time brought out their tribal devils to search for the perpetrators. It was during the search that seven men were arrested on July 16,  and turned over to police in Sanniquellie for interrogation.

Even after the tribal devils arrested the suspects, the police (again) claimed that due to lack of scientific evidence, they could not charge the alleged perpetrators. This caused the case to drag on until September, when the Crime Services Department (CSD) sent another batch of officers, backed by former Ganta Police Commander, Adolphus Zorh, to conduct the investigation.

Commander Zorh’s team was able to establish the facts and determine that two of the seven men be released because police could not find any evidence to charge them. The other five men arrested by tribal devils were charged by police and sent to court.

According to the CSD, Sanniquellie Detachment, Liberia National Police, the five men were charged with “murder, criminal facilitation and criminal conspiracy” and sent to the Sanniquellie Magisterial Court for preliminary investigation.

Initial confessions

Following their arrest by the tribal devils in the beginning, one of the suspects, Prince Karney, age 41, immediately confessed that they were given the amount of US$1,200 for the murderous operation.

He said he then hired one Zayee Winpea, 43, to kill the two children for the amount of US$300 and gave US$150 to Nenkerwon Mahn, an 18-year-old uncle of the kids, to serve as a watchman while the killing was carried out.

The oldest among the suspects, 45-year-old Morris Gonwon, was also promised US$150 for his role in the killing, which was not spelled out.  Two of the seven suspects, George Sumah and Lawrence Sumah, were hired to take the victims’ blood to Monrovia, while another suspect, Harrison Sumah, was the one who lured the kids with candy before grabbing them. 

During the CSD final investigation, Morris Gonwon and George Sumah were released on grounds that there was not enough evidence to prosecute them. The five persons charged and sent to court are Prince Karney, Harrison Sumah, Lawrence Freeman, Nenkerwon Mahn, and Zayee Winpea.

Prince Karney is said to be the Youth leader of Boe Bonlay and coordinator for the “Friends of Jackson Paye”, a political canvassing group. Jackson Paye is a former Deputy Minister of National Defense who has expressed his desire to contest for the Nimba County District #6 representative seat in 2023.

The murder suspects alleged that the former deputy minister facilitated the killing by giving them the US$1,200 for the operation — to get the children’s blood, allegedly for ritual purposes.

However, Jackson Paye on Truth FM on Thursday, June 22, 2022 denied having any connection to the killings, describing the acts as barbaric, inhumane and uncivilized. He explained that the “Friends of Paye” want the law to take its course, ensuring the alleged perpetrators face the full weight of the law. 

Traditional justice 

It is not clear whether the tribal devils ever got to the heart of the matter to determine exactly who ordered the men to kill the two children.  We may never know. 

However, in cases where communities in Liberia have invoked tribal justice systems to supersede statutory law — especially in the absence of forensic evidence — statutory systems tend to give way. Especially in rural communities, law enforcement personnel dare not interfere with matters involving tribal devils. 

In the recent past, such has been the case in instances where communities have risen up to express their dissatisfaction when their expectations of government have been egregiously dashed. 

In November 2021, Lofa County, a powerful sect of the Poro Society, the Ngaimu, staged a protest, blocking the bridge that connects Bong and Lofa counties, to oppose the delay by the Supreme Court to decide whether Senator-elect Brownie Samukai should take his Lofa County senatorial seat, which had been unoccupied due to a disability imposed on him by the Court for nearly a year.

In response, the Deputy Inspector General for Operations of the Liberia National Police (LNP), Marvin Sackor, threatened necessary actions against any country devil protest. Yet, no move was made on the part of the police.  

A month earlier, October 18, 2021, members of the secret Poro Society shut down ArcelorMittal Liberia’s operations in Yekepa, Nimba County for more than 48 hours at both Mount Tokadeh and Mount Gangra, over claims that AML failed to live up to its previous amended mineral development agreement (MDA) with the government.  

For ArcelorMittal Liberia, this was not the first time.  Barely six weeks earlier, on September 27, 2021, the Poro masters temporarily besieged the operation areas of AML, halting operations for 8 hours. 

But tribal or traditional devils are only one extreme of traditional justice systems. Liberia recognizes a whole regime of what it calls “trial by ordeal”, a method by which suspects are made to undergo an often dangerous test to determine their innocence or guilt. However, while the United Nations has called on Liberia to abolish all forms of trial by ordeal, only the most harmful aspects of this system of justice have been abolished.

Source: Liberia: In Nimba, Tribal Devils Become Detectives

Also:

Lofa County locked down by “Country Devil”

(L-r)  Cars forcefully stopped at the crossing point between Bong and Lofa Counties – leaving several business people stranded along the way.  

Published: November 26, 2021
By: Marcus Malaya – Daily Observer, Liberia

A protest against the Supreme Court of Liberia has resulted in the shut-down of the border crossing point between Bong and Lofa Counties – leaving several business people stranded along the way.

The protest, which is being led by the powerful sect of the Poro Society, the Ngaimu, is intended to oppose the delay by the Supreme Court to decide the fate of the Lofa County senatorial seat, which has been unoccupied due to the disability imposed on Senator-elect Brownie Samukai by the Court.

The protesters, who are all men and led by the fearsome, Ngaimu – the traditional name of head of the Poro Society in that part of Liberia – have blocked the road, halting the movement of people and goods between the two counties, while those who are not members of the society have remained indoors since the morning hours of Thursday, November 25.

“Ngaimu has set a roadblock in the village of Beyan Town on the Lofa side of the border.  The action of Ngaimu is in protest of the Court and the Government of Liberia’s failure to announce the Senate seat of Lofa County vacant since the Senator-elect Samukai has not been able to take the seat due to his disability by the Supreme Court,” disclosed eyewitnesses at the scene of the protest.

The protesters, however, vowed to keep the road closed until the Court ruled on the matter – deciding if the senate will be declared vacant or not. And security personnel, some of whom are not members of the society, have also been dared to remove the roadblock, setup by Ngaimu.

The fear of the Ngaimu has also prevented the women from going out to tend to their farms, since it is forbidden for a woman to lay eyes on it – as doing so comes with consequences, traditionalists claim.

The eyewitness accounts revealed that there are more than three “Ngaimus” currently at the St. Paul Bridge in Beyan Town and there are more “Ngaimus” coming to join the others currently at the bridge.

Supreme Court

The Supreme Court months ago denied Samukai’s request for the high court to reverse the judgment of the Criminal Court ‘C’ at the Temple of Justice, which found him and two others guilty of misapplying over US$1 million in pension funds stored up in a bank account for members of the Armed Forces of Liberia (AFL) when he served as Defense Minister. 

The disability includes the payment of US$173,276.05 as some portion of his share of money illegally withdrawn from the Armed Forces of Liberia (AFL) pension funds, for which he was found guilty of misapplication of entrusted property, theft of property, and other criminal offenses by Criminal Court ‘C’ with such ruling confirmed by the Supreme.

While Samukai made a payment of US$173,276.05, his two deputies Joseph F. Johnson, former Deputy Minister for Administration, and J. Nyumah Dorkor, former Comptroller, did not despite being found guilty jointly.

Samukai, together with Johnson and Dorkor, were to pay the amount of US$573,832.68 within a six-month period to avoid imprisonment, according to the Supreme Court mandate to the Criminal Court ‘C’.  It was out of the amount of US$573,832.68 that Samukai alone managed to pay the US$173,276.05, which his followers believed is the portion of his share of the money.

The Court then ordered the National Election Commission not to certify him until the disability imposed on him as a result of his conviction for felony is removed. The Court argued that from a review of the records, Samukai and his two deputies were jointly charged with the commission of the crimes for which they were brought down guilty.

The Supreme Court added that the restitution is a part of the sentence, as such; Samukai and the two others are to restitute the amount withdrawn from the AFL Pension Account without the permission or authorization of the soldiers.

History of the case

Samukai, then former Defense Minister, together with Johnson and Dorkor without any authorization, withdrew the amount US$1,147,665.35 from the pension fund belonging to soldiers of the Armed Forces of Liberia (AFL).

The three men were later declared guilty of multiple crimes including misuse of private funds and subsequently sentenced to two years in prison each, and also ordered to restitute the money within a year by the Criminal Court ‘C’. The judgment was later modified by the Supreme Court after Samukai and the others appealed against it to the high court.

In the modification, the Supreme Court said it was suspending their prison term on grounds that, if they were to pay fifty percent (50) of the judgment amount of the US$1,147,665.35, which is $573,832.68, within six months period, which expired by August, 26, they would avoid Imprisonment.

Source: Liberia: Lofa Locked Down by “Country Devil”

Also:

Liberia National Police warns against ‘Country Devil’ protests

Headquarters of the Liberia National Police (LNP)

Published: December 10, 2021
By: Tina S. Mehnpaine – Daily Observer, Liberia

The Deputy  Inspector General for Operations of the Liberia National Police (LNP), Marvin Sackor has threatened necessary actions against any country devil protest.

He said if people are disenchanted, they should make use of the legal means rather than staying in protest to undermine the peace of the country.

“It is unfortunate and unfair that some of our people are using the tradition to undermine the peace and security of this country. Let me say this, article 17 of our constitution gives citizens the right to peacefully assemble and petition their government. So if you, as a citizen of this country, will use whatever political means or any disenchantment to undermine the peace of this country, I can assure the public that the Liberia National Police will use whatever force necessary to contain that situation,” he warned.

Since the staging of a protest by members of the poro society in Lofa county to call on the attention of the Supreme Court to decide the fate of Senator-elect Brownie Samukai, traditional leaders have been accused of allowing politicians to influence them.

The group of men led by their powerful poro master, Ngainmu, on November 30, blocked the entrance of the St. Paul bridge that connects Bomi and Lofa counties to pressure the court to reopen the case of Senator-elect Samukai.

Sackor added that if traditional people have any disenchantment in the country, they should use legal means to get redress instead of blocking roads to cause chaos among citizens.

“There is no exception to the rule of law; our traditional people need to understand that this country is governed by law,” Sackor declared. “ Anyone – I am very clear here – that thinks that they have any other power to undermine the Constitution, trust me, the Liberia National Police will use every legal means to uphold the Constitution and the rule of law. So, I am appealing to our traditional people in Lofa. Handle your situation through the legal means. Any attempt to block the St. Paul Bridge, we are under obligation to make sure that the Constitution is intact.”

Nathaniel F. McGill, Minister of State, also accused politicians of masterminding the protest and branding it as a disgrace to Liberian culture.

“I was watching Facebook live and I saw a country devil protesting. This has never happened in our country, it is a shame and whoever did that must be disgraceful,” said Minister McGill.

Addressing the Ministry of information, Cultural Affairs and Tourism (MICAT) regular press briefing in Monrovia, Sackor reminded traditional leaders that they are not above the law and, therefore, any attempt to block roads, the police will not hesitate to act.

Meanwhile, the deputy inspector general has revealed that due to the increasing wave of criminal activities in the country, there will be restrictions imposed on motorcyclists. 

He said a police investigation has shown that criminals are transported by motorcyclists so the Police have commenced the implementation of the no-go-zones for motorcyclists ahead of the festive season in Liberia, to avoid the transportation of criminals.

Source: Liberia: LNP Warns Against ‘Country Devil’ Protests

Also:

Poro Society halts ArcelorMittal’s operations in Yekepa

AML train in motion in Liberia

Published: October 19, 2021
By: Ishmael F. Menkor – Daily Observer, Liberia

Steel giant ArcelorMittal was forced yesterday to shut down its Yekepa operations after members of the secret poro society made an unannounced visit to protest against alleged neglect by the company.

The strike action, which is highly unprecedented for members of the highly respected Poro Society in Liberia, comes amid rising tension in the company’s operating areas weeks after it had signed an amended mineral development agreement with the government of Liberia.

The agreement, which now awaits ratification from lawmakers, has been met with rejection by mines communities in Nimba County, where the company operates, over claims that AML failed to live up to its previous amended mineral development agreement (MDA) with the government. 

Poro Society members, led by the Poro Master,  shut down AML operations for more than  48 hours  at both Mount Tokadeh and Mount Gangra and might likely last for 14 days, according to an insider close to the Poro masters. 

The protest, which is the second in a month, is happening as county officials remain mute on the matter while they negotiate behind closed doors.

However, an elderly resident of one of mine communities has disclosed that the company, through its’ Community liaison manager, has begun negotiating with society members to cancel their protest and meet on the round table to discuss issues relating to their concerns.

In a statement, the  AML confirmed the incident, saying, “on early Saturday morning, October 16, 2021, some individuals wearing ceremonial traditional costumes blocked the main access road to the mining site of ArcelorMittal Liberia in Yekepa, disrupting business operations of the company.” 

“As a company that prioritizes safety and security, ArcelorMittal Liberia warns of the associated risks of unauthorized entry of individuals into an industrial environment and condemns such illegal action, said the statement from AML. “AML reaffirms its commitment to community engagement on issues around its operations as a means of finding a common ground.”

Meanwhile, AML said while they respect and continue to support traditional and cultural activities especially in their operational areas, they disagreed with disruptions and acts aimed at causing fear among its workforce are unwarranted and undermine close working relations.

On September 27, 2021 the Poro masters temporarily sieged the operation areas of AML, halting operation of 8 hours.

There has been tension in Nimba County since the Government and AML reached a new Mineral Development Agreement to extend the operation to 2036, where AML stands to invest about UD$ 800 million.

The deal has so far been rejected by mining communities due to claims of past abandonment and negligence of previous MDA.

Source: Poro Society Masters Halt AML Operations in Yekepa

Also:

The following article was originally published on November 1, 2007. It contains highly recommended reading for the readers of this site. It was decided to include it in this posting for two reasons. First, it was originally included in the Daily Observer article on the two slain boys in Nimba County (on top) and secondly, because it contains relevant background information on traditional beliefs and practices which still exist in Liberia despite being outlawed for reasons which will be clear after having read the article.

Liberia: Trial by ordeal makes the guilty burn but “undermines justice”

Sassywood and Witch Persecution in Liberia – by Leo Igwe. To access the article, please click here
Igwe’s article serves as illustration and is not related to the OCHA article below.

Published: November 1, 2007
By: OCHA Services – Relief Web

MONROVIA, 1 November 2007 (IRIN)

  • About 50 people in the village of Klay, northwestern Liberia, recently gathered to watch a man apply red-hot metal to the limbs of four youths accused of robbery.

The man dipped a machete in a concoction of water, palm oil and kola nuts, held it in fire for several minutes, and then placed it on the right legs of the four suspects. None of the youths – ages 16 to 26 – appeared to flinch. They were deemed not guilty.

This practice known as ‘sassywood’ is banned under national law, but is still regarded as a legitimate form of justice by many Liberians. A suspect is subjected to intense pain and judged on his or her reaction – if the hot metal burns the person’s leg, he or she is found guilty.

The UN has repeatedly warned that the practice is undermining efforts to improve human rights in Liberia as the country attempts to recover from 14 years of war.

Many legal specialists and human rights activists say relying on customs such as trial by ordeal – often harmful and even deadly – is down to the decrepit state of Liberia’s judicial system. And many say not enough is being done to restore the sector, left in tatters by the war.

Four years after the fighting ended, progress in rebuilding the judicial and corrections system is “very slow”, according to an August report by the UN Security Council. “The judicial system is constrained by limited infrastructure, shortage of qualified personnel, lack of capacity to process cases, poor management and lack of the necessary will to institute reforms.” The report said most people do not have access to legal counsel.

Legal advisers in Liberia say the absence of functioning courts in most rural areas is due in large part to lawyers’ reluctance to take judgeships there, as well as the lack of infrastructure for courts.

In the central Liberian town of Gbarnga in Bong County, 150km north of the capital Monrovia, residents told IRIN that trial by ordeal is the only means to adjudicate alleged crimes.

“If somebody is accused of stealing money, clothes, jewellery, food or other items, the best [way] to know who committed the act is to administer sassywood, which is fast – it takes less than 30 minutes to know who did the act,” Gbarnga resident Johnny Bono said.

Users of sassywood believe the person administering it and the instruments used have mystical powers. Practitioners are paid in money or goods – up to 2000 Liberian dollars (US$32) per ‘trial’ in the capital and about a third of that in rural areas. Sometimes payment is kola nuts and a pure-white chicken.

According to a rights activist in Nimba County, the problem is that many people will submit to sassywood because they do not know it has been outlawed.

“Sassywood is very common here and most people believe that it is the only means of knowing a guilty person,” said Dualo Lor of the church-based NGO Equip-Liberia in Nimba, 300km from Monrovia. “They are not even aware the practice is outlawed.”

He group recently prevented the application of sassywood on a 32-year-old man accused of theft. “We have been trying very hard [to educate] the people about the danger of sassywood, but they just have not stopped it.”

Some legal experts say it will be tough to stop if citizens do not feel they have a reliable justice system to take its place.

“The trial by ordeal in most parts of the country clearly shows that most people do not have confidence in the court system,” Anthony Valcke, Liberia country director of the American Bar Association in Africa, told IRIN. “If people had such confidence, they would not resort to trial by ordeal.”

Tradition

“No amount of laws or government order can stop sassywood,” Yerkula Zaizay, a resident of Gbarnga, told IRIN. “It is a tradition that our forefathers left with us. This is better than going to court. My late grandfather taught me how to apply sassywood and it is part of my culture so it cannot be easily stopped.”

Gbarnga resident Bono said, “We cannot waste our time going to court. The sassywood is our courtroom. This is what our forefathers have been practising in the past and it has been working.”

Lawyer Augustine Toe, head of the Justice and Peace Commission, a Catholic human rights group, said: “Sassywood undermines the justice system of this country and the rights of an accused are not protected. Our constitution provides that anyone is presumed innocent until proven guilty by a [court of law].”

Liberia’s chief prosecutor, Tiawon Gongloe, told IRIN he had instructed all county prosecuting officers to arrest anyone carrying out trial by ordeal.

“We are aware sassywood is going on and this act is not only unlawful, but unconstitutional,” he said, noting that 12 people were arrested earlier this year in southeastern Liberia for having administered sassywood.

UN independent human rights expert, Charlotte Abaka, said the government had to do more. “The Liberian government should take concrete steps to enforce the ban on trial by ordeal,” she said, calling the practice a “grave” breach of human rights.

ak/np/mw

Source: Liberia: Trial by ordeal makes the guilty burn but “undermines justice”

Liberia: “We’ll Continue the Sande Bush Practice of Our Ancestors” – Zoes in Margibi Vow

The following article contains two interesting aspects to which I would like to draw the readers’ attention.

First, I was struck by the public declaration of Chief Zoe, Ma Wrote Musa, to continue certain traditional practices of the ancestors, including the practicing of FGM, female genital mutilation. My interpretation of these remarks is that traditional values and behavior are still undisputed in Liberia, at least at the highest level.

Secondly, almost causal the Chief Zoe mentions ritual killings. Shocking, it’s a public acknowledgement that these age-old practices still occur in this West African country. I found it shocking – which it is not really, in the sense that everyone in Liberia knows of the existence of these crimes, based on greed, superstition and the disrespect of the rule of law and of the human rights of the victims – including the government. (FVDK)

Liberia: “We’ll Continue the Sande Bush Practice of Our Ancestors” – Zoes in Margibi Vow

“We will continue the Sande Bush practice of our ancestors in Liberia. We inherited this practice, and in no way, we are willing to end it. And, if the government and others want to force us, we will traditionally resist. If they want us to leave our ancestors’ practice, let them be equally prepared to let go other practices such as same-sex, the UBF, the Free Masons and ritualistic killings, etc,” said Chief Zoe, Ma Wroto Musa.

Published: August 30, 2022
By: Mae Azango – Front Page Africa

MONROVIA – Hundreds of Liberian school-aged girls and young women stand the risks of being initiated into the Sande Society, also known as the bush school, because, traditional leaders of Margibi County pledged to continue their ancestors’ traditional heritage. 

Chief Zoe, Ma Wroto Musa, Chief Samuel Kollie and other traditional leaders in Weala Margibi County vowed to continue Sande activities admit the three-year suspension on the practice.

“We will continue the Sande Bush practice of our ancestors in Liberia. We inherited this practice, and in no way, we are willing to end it. And, if the government and others want to force us, we will traditionally resist. If they want us to leave our ancestors’ practice, let them be equally prepared to let go other practices such as same-sex, the UBF, the Free Masons and ritualistic killings, etc,” said Chief Zoe, Ma Wroto Musa. 

Speaking in Weala Margibi County, during a recent town hall in meeting, organized by HeForShe Crusaders Liberia, the West Point Women for Health and Development Organization and Community Healthcare Initiative, the zoes, along with over 20 traditional leaders, said even though they are knowledgeable of the three years suspension on FGM activity in Liberia, but they will continue until same-sex and UBF is abolished as well. 

During the ongoing dialogue, in affirmation of their support, all the invited traditional participants raised their hands in support of FGM continuation in Liberia. 

The Ministry of Internal Affairs, which is the umbrella entity responsible for regulations of all traditional affairs, is unaware of the violation by many traditional leaders. When contacted regarding the wave of FGM activities going on after the three-year ban placed on the practice, Assistant Minister for Culture and Customs, Joseph B. Jangar, said he is surprised and shock at the same time such activities but promised to follow up with superintendents of the various counties that are said to be violating the three-year moratorium. 

“The zoes and traditional leaders are all aware of the three-year suspension and not one of those zoes operating the bush schools will be able to show you any certificate from the Ministry of Internal Affairs because we are aware of the ban,” said Minister Jangar. 

It can be recalled that in late February 2022, Chief Zanzan Karwor, Chairman of the National Traditional Council of Liberia, announced a three-year suspension of the practice of female genital mutilation in Liberia. The three-year ban which started with immediate effect came amidst campaigns by human rights groups for a total ban on the practice. But it seems since the declaration was made, many traditional leaders are openly violating the ban. 

“FGM/C is not only a human rights violation, but undermines the peace and security of each and every female. Access to bodily autonomy is a right to every woman, end FGM and its not cultural but harmful suppression,” Saye Tamba F. Johnson, National HeForShe Crusaders Liberia. Johnson said Margibi County is the second county that has challenged the three-year suspension of FGM. The first was Grand Cape Mount in February of 2022. However, Lofa, Gborpolu, Grand Bassa, Bong, Montesrrado and Rivercess Counties are reportedly still carrying out the act, too. 

According to this newspaper’s Nimba County Correspondent, two zoes in that county paid dearly for disobedience to the three-year ban when they were arrested in Sanniquellie, Nimba County, for forcing over 8000 school-going aged girls into the Sande Bush. The girls, who had gone to prepare for 2022/2023 school year, were all captured and forced into the Bush School by the two traditional leaders. And the report added that the practices are presently taking place in the 19 administrative districts in Nimba County.

HeForShe Crusaders Liberia, Lofa County Coordinator Boakai Yamah reported on the increase of FGM activities and listed towns and villages that are carrying out the practice during the three-year suspension. 

“I reported earlier from Lofa County, on the increase in the numbers of Sande Bushes in operation across the county. Here are the names and locations where Sande Bush activities are ongoing.

1. Gbordu Town, Kpalakollie Clan, Tangia Administrative District, Foya 

2. Lawalazu Town, Lower Workor Clan, Voinjama District 

3. Zawoadamai Town, Lower Workor Clan, Voinjama District 

4. Borgondu Town, Quardu Gboni District 

5. Korlelar Town, Quardu Gboni District 

6. Kamolahun Town, Ngolahun Clan, Lukambeh District 

7. Manena Town, Hembeh Clan, Lukambeh District 

8. Lehuma Town, Wanwoma Clan, Wanhassa District. 

However, for Lehunma Town all preparations have been put in place to take the children,” concluded Coordinator Yamah. Back to the Weala Meeting in Margibi, following the intense awareness on the importance of maintaining all positive attributes of the Sande Bush, making away with the circumcision aspect, the leaders and supporters disagreed. “Our leaders at the national level are seeking money and forgetting the values of our heritage. They are seeking their own personal interest and not us. They don’t consult us on issues; we only hear about them, which is a disservice to us. Hence, there is a need for you all to keep engaging us and let us know who are directly involved with the bush and speak out on what is possible,” said Chief Samuel Kollie.

Source:
Liberia: “We’ll Continue the Sande Bush Practice of Our Ancestors” – Zoes in Margibi Vow

Nigeria’s National Human Rights Commission advocates strong mechanisms to fight harmful practices against children – AU Day of the Child marked in Ghana

Last Thursday, June 16, was the Day of the African Child, created by the organization of African Unity in 1991, and triggered by sad events in South Africa. The Day of the African Child is celebrated on the African continent and around the world.

In Nigeria, Africa’s largest country in terms of population and number of childen, where an estimated 75 million children live, the National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) paid attention to the event. Nigeria is no exception on the African continent where harmful practices threaten and affect the lives of millions of innocent and defenseless children. Among these practices we note child marriage, child trafficking, rape, female genital mutilation, infanticide and other forms of violence against children, some of whom are accused of being witches, some of whom are being targeted for ritualistic purposes, notably children with albinism.

Also in Ghana, the Volta Region office of the Department of Children under the Ministry of Gender, Children and Social Protection (MoGCSP), in collaboration with Plan International, Ghana, celebrated this year’s African Union Day of the African Child.

Mr Seth Kwasi Agbi, the District Chief Executive for South Tongu, in a keynote address, condemned all harmful acts such as child trafficking, child labour, and ritualistic murders which also victimize children.
(webmaster FVDK)

NHRC advocates strong mechanisms to fight harmful practices against children

Published: June 17, 2022
By: Michael Olugbode, This Day – Nigeria

The National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) has reiterated the need to devise and strengthen national accountability mechanisms that will deter harmful practices against children, so as to enable them to attain all-around development in life.

The Executive Secretary of the commission, Chief Tony Ojukwu, stated this in his welcome remarks at the commemoration of the 2022 Day of the African Child (DAC).

He noted that the celebration was an opportunity to take stock of what has been done with regards to the adoption of policies and practices targeted at eliminating harmful practices affecting children in Nigeria.

Ojukwu, who was represented at the event by the Director of Monitoring Department, Mr. Benedict Agu, said the 2022 theme of the celebration: ‘Eliminating Harmful Practices Affecting Children: Progress on Policy and Practice since 2013’,  is appropriate as it seeks to address the peculiar human rights challenges affecting children.

He noted that these challenges, are negative harmful practices such as early/forced marriage, female genital mutilation, child trafficking among others.

He stated that against this background, the commission’s role in advancing the campaign to end harmful practices affecting children is hinged on its mandate to promote, protect and enforce the rights of all persons in Nigeria.

According to him, “Notably, the commission was a critical partner in the advocacy for the passage of the Child’s Rights Act 2003, and has been involved in continued advocacy for its adoption into Child Rights Laws of about 26 states of the federation.

“It is also a member of the State Child Rights Implementation Committee of several states in Nigeria and has continued to advocate for the mainstreaming of children’s rights in relevant policies of the government.”

Ojukwu stated that the commission has further prioritised Child Rights in its work through the creation of the Department of Women and Children, and the thematic team on the Rights of the Child, which have enabled it to take action against pervasive child rights abuses such as child marriage, Female Genital Mutilation (FGM), Sexual and Gender-based Violence (SGBV), infanticide, child trafficking among others.

In her key message, a member of the African Committee of Experts on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, Ms. Aver She said the commemoration of DAC is an opportunity to sensitise duty bearers on the importance of engaging children in their own issues and promoting participation as well as inclusion in line with the principles of child participation.

Gavar, who is also the director of Human Rights Education and Promotion in the commission, said the focus of the DAC 2022 is also to respond to the high prevalence of harmful practices affecting children in different parts of Africa, including rape, FGM, child marriage, infanticide among others.

She urged the government to strengthen its child protection system through increased budgetary lines across sectors dealing with child rights implementation and through the establishment of one-step centres for integrated response to child survivors of rape, child marriage, FGM and all forms of violence against children.

In her remarks, the Minister of Women Affairs, Dame Pauline Tallen, disclosed that the ministry has made progress in spearheading a range of policy documents to address harmful cultural practices, like the implementation of the Child’s Rights Act (CRA) 2003, National Guidelines on Establishment of Child Care Institutions, and National Strategy on Elimination of Child Marriage.

Source: NHRC Advocates Strong Mechanisms to Fight Harmful Practices against Children

AU Day of the African child marked in South Tongu, Volta Region, Ghana.

Mr Israel Akrobortu, the Volta Regional Director of the Department of Children,

Published: June 17, 2022
By: News Ghana, Ghana News Agency – GNA

The Volta Region office of the Department of Children under the Ministry of Gender, Children and Social Protection (MoGCSP), in collaboration with Plan International, Ghana, have celebrated this year’s African Union Day of the African Child with a call to end harmful practices affecting children. 

In an address, Mr Israel Akrobortu, the Volta Regional Director of the Department of Children, said some traditional customs and practices conflicted with children’s rights and were harmful to their development. 

“Child marriage and Female Genital Mutilation are two of the most discriminatory harmful cultural practices that have been committed regularly over long periods that some communities and societies have come to accept,” he said. 

Mr Akrobotu called on duty bearers to take urgent steps to stop such negative practices, which were affecting children, especially female genital cutting, to protect the vulnerable, especially girls from all unnecessary and dangerous practices.

Mr Seth Kwasi Agbi, the District Chief Executive for South Tongu, in a keynote address, said it was important to focus on the vital efforts of communities and child rights activists working on policies and practices to eliminate “these harmful practices affecting children on the continent.” 

He explained that the acts, such as child trafficking, child labour, ritual murder, and defilement, if not curbed and eventually eliminated, would be detrimental to the growth and development of the continent. 

Mr Alfred Dzikunoo, Programmes Coordinator, and a representative from Plan International, Ghana, said Plan Ghana had made many contributions to end the canker against the Ghanaian Child. 

The interventions include empowering girls with life skills, knowledge and networks to become empowered agents of change in their own lives, engagement of duty-bearers such as GHS, DOVVSU, and DSW to improve education on child marriage FGM, and child labour.

Torgbi Atsugah Sogah Il, a Divisional chief from Fieve Traditional Area, implored participating students to be good ambassadors and serve as role models for other children in their communities as well as cultivate the habit of championing the right to education. 

The 2022 celebration was on the theme: “Eliminating Harmful Practices Affecting Children: Progress on Policy and Practices since 2013.” 

Comboni Senior High Technical School garnered 18 points against 15 by Sogakope Senior High School (SOGASCO) to win the debate on the topic: “Has the policies on harmful socio-cultural practices affecting children since 2013 curbed the menace,?” 

The “Day of the African Child” dates back to 1991 when the African Union (AU) initiated a remembrance of the children who lost their lives in a peaceful protest in Soweto, South Africa, in 1976. 

The event attracted school children, officials from the South Tongu District Education Directorate, teachers, local government staff, and traditional rulers within the South Tongu District.

Source: AU Day of the African child marked in South Tongu

Districts in the Volta Region, Ghana.


Malawi: killed for their bones – on the trail of the trade in human body parts

There is hardly any doubt that in Malawi the position of people with albinism is the most fragile and dangerous as compared to other countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. I have repeatedly mentioned this here, see e.g. my posting earlier this year, on January 22.

In 2017, ALJAZEERA reported that In Malawi, more than 115 people had been attacked in the past two years and that at least 20 of them did not survive the attack. Below follows an extensive report of ALJAZEERA on the victims, the survivors and the perpetrators (as far as known).

ALJAZEERA is to be commended for raising awareness on the human rights violations people with albinism experience and the efforts being made to protect them.

ALJAZEERA is to be commended for this excellent work of investigative journalism and the attention thus paid to this curse. People with albinism face discrimination in at least 23 African countries. For many, this discrimination amounts to insecurity, violence & murder.

Also in the current year, ALJAZEERA paid attention to the plight of people with albinism, on June 13, International Albinism Awareness Day, with a series of tweets. Click here to access the tweets.

Warning: some readers may find the following stories disturbing (webmaster FVDK).

Published: June 13, 2022
By: ALJAZEERA

Killed for their bones – On the trail of the trade in human body parts

In Malawi, people with albinism are being killed and their bodies harvested; children and adults hacked to death with machetes and kitchen knives. More than 115 people have been attacked in the past two years, at least 20, fatally. Those who have survived have been left with deep physical and psychological scars, and remain fearful that those who hunt them will return.

But why is this happening? Ask and most people will talk about an elusive market for these body parts, people who are prepared to pay large sums of money for them and witch doctors who use them in potions to cure everything from disease to bad luck. But few seem to know where this trade actually takes place or to be able to point to an instance of money changing hands.

So, does this market of human body parts really exist, or is it a myth that is driving murder? We went in search of the market and found a toxic mix of witchcraft, poverty and desperation.

Here are the stories of the victims, the survivors and the perpetrators.

The condition that makes me black without black, white but not white. That is how it was, and I will tell you all about it. – Petina Gappah, The Book of Memory

1 – The Victims

David’s story

Village of Nambilikira, Dedza district, eastern Malawi

It was a Sunday in April 2016. A warm, dry day. Seventeen-year-old David Fletcher was being moody and withdrawn. He wanted to watch a football match at the local school instead of helping his family gather maize in the fields. His parents eventually relented and let him go.

When he didn’t return later that day, they searched the village, but couldn’t find David.

The next day, they walked to the nearest police station to report him missing. Then they waited.

A week later, the local police chief came to their home to deliver the news: David’s dismembered body had been found, 80km away, in neighbouring Mozambique. It was badly decomposed, he told them. It couldn’t be brought to the village for burial, but he could bring the arms and legs, if they wished. And if the family could afford the journey, they could visit it where it was found.

“He was dead. What benefit was there to see his dead body?” Fletcher Machinjiri, David’s 65-year-old father, asks, dismissively. “It was too expensive for us.”

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Fletcher is sitting outside his house. His 53-year-old wife, Namvaleni Lokechi, sits beside him. Her face is expressionless. Their 32-year-old daughter Mudelanji and 21-year-old son Manchinjiri sit on the hard earth a few metres away. They listen as though it is the first time they have heard the story.

“He was killed like a goat at a market,” Lokechi says, staring into the distance. “His arms and legs had been chopped off. They broke off some of his bones. His skin was hanging. And they buried him in a shallow grave.”

He was killed like a goat at a market. His arms and legs had been chopped off.– Namvaleni Lokechi, the mother of David Fletcher, a murdered 17-year-old

She makes chopping motions with her hands as she speaks.

“We cry every day,” Fletcher says. “To us, he was a ray of hope. We believed in his future. We thought he would lift our hand because he was good at school.” 

“We still battle to eat without him.”

‘A war against people with albinism’

Born in 1999, David was the fourth of five siblings – and the only one to have been born with albinism.

“I wasn’t surprised when he was born,” David’s mother says softly. “I was more than happy with his complexion.”

Her tiny frame stiffens when she talks about her son.

She had an aunt in Blantyre with the same congenital disorder that results in a partial absence of pigmentation in the skin, hair and eyes, she explains. 

“I’ve always felt that this group of people were lucky in life,” she says slowly.

David was a star pupil at the local school in the neighbouring village of Kachule.

His teacher, Clement Gweza, recalls feeling mildly concerned when he didn’t turn up for school that Monday. 

“I thought maybe there were no groceries at home, or maybe he was unwell,” Clement says, sitting inside his empty classroom. “But the second day [he didn’t turn up] … then I got worried.”

When he learned what had happened to David, he says, he was shocked. “It meant I was next,” he says, placing his hands on his chest. 

For Clement also has albinism.

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So, too, does 14-year-old Latida Macho, another pupil at the school. She is one of five siblings with the condition. After David’s murder, her family refused to send her to school for three weeks.

“If this is war against people with albinism, then it means I’m second in line,” Clement reflects.

He says he knew that people with albinism were being murdered, but “for it to happen in the district, but also in my class, it was unreal”.

Within days, two men were arrested for the murder.

Both Malawians, they were tried in a district court in May 2016 and sentenced to 25 years in prison for conspiracy to commit a crime and abduction. 

David’s family say they heard about the arrests and subsequent trial only from the media. And that they are bitterly disappointed with the outcome.

“The accused persons should be killed as well,” Fletcher says, pointing to the floor. “The child was brutally killed, hence they must equally be killed brutally.”

Alfred’s story

Village of Nasi, district of Phalombe, eastern Malawi

Seventeen-year-old Alfred Chigalu lives with his aunt in a mud home surrounded by dead sunflowers. 

Their courtyard of red earth is home to five goats and a dozen raucous chickens.

The nearest neighbour is a five-minute walk away, along a path cut through overgrown grass. It takes 20 minutes – across dried up tobacco fields – to reach the main road. Drought has hit this region hard, and while tall mango trees provide shade for the farmers, they bear no fruit.

The climate here is harsh. Crops are often destroyed by drought or violent hailstorms. Like others in the village, Alfred and his aunt, Lydia Petulo, are surviving on pieces of dried maize from last year’s harvest. The goats in the yard are not their own. Lydia looks after them for a local merchant, and receives one at the end of each year in return.

In December 2015, four men broke down the door of Alfred’s bedroom while he was sleeping. They slashed at him with machetes, hitting the back of his head, his shoulders and his back. They tried to drag him out of the house. When his aunt found him in a pool of his own blood, his attackers ran away.

Alfred survived but was left badly scarred.

Now, the slightest sound wakes him, and when he walks to the village he must be accompanied.

“Before the attack I used to depend on him; I could send him to the market, he could go to the farm and do the farming,” Lydia says, biting her lips as she completes her sentences.

“But I cannot do the same these days.”

“I fear for his life. The responsibility has shifted to me.”

But this isn’t the first time she has been afraid for her nephew. She took him out of school six years ago, when the taunting began, she explains. 

Lydia slouches as she narrates their story. Her tired eyes wander. But they brighten when she talks about Alfred. She adopted him after his mother – her sister – died.

Alfred had a sibling who also had albinism, but that child died, she recalls. She doesn’t remember the dates or the details – of his sibling’s or his parents’ deaths – other than that both of Alfred’s parents died around the time he took his first steps.

‘I am lonely’

Alfred is sitting outside on the floor, his back against the house, wearing oversized jeans and a short-sleeved shirt. They are the only clothes he owns. He was wearing his other outfit when he was attacked. There was so much blood that it had to be burned.

On his head is a large cowboy hat. 

He is tall with broad shoulders that droop when he walks. For the first few hours that we are there, he doesn’t talk.

But when we put the camera away and move out of sight of the curious neighbours who have gathered to watch, he begins to speak.

His parched lips barely move.

“I wake up at 6 in the morning, every day. I sweep the yard, but I feel pain in my arms,” he says slowly.

He removes his shirt to reveal long, deep scars on his chest and back.

“The way they cut me, they cut my veins. I can barely hold a hoe,” he explains.

I want to finish school, to become a teacher, and move out of here. I would love if someone could take me away from this village. I have to get out of this place.– Seventeen-year-old Alfred Chigalu, who was attacked in November 2015

When she found him on the floor, Lydia began to scream and cry.

“The neighbours came, but it was too late, the attackers had left,” she says. “I really felt sorry for him when I looked at him and I knew he was lucky to have survived. He would have been killed if he hadn’t screamed for me.”

She says she knows why he was attacked.

“Before the attack, some people used to mock him if he went outside the house. They [would say] he is worth millions of kwacha [thousands of dollars], so that gave us an indication that his life could be in danger,” Lydia explains.

The physical wounds have mostly healed, but life is not the same for Alfred. He misses “chatting”, he says, shyly, before adding: “Most of all I miss my friends. I am lonely.”

His aunt says he “lacks peace”.

In April 2016, Ikponwosa Ero, the UN’s independent expert on the enjoyment of human rights by persons with albinism, visited Alfred and his aunt. She told Al Jazeera that Alfred seemed to have suffered “memory loss” after the attack. But when we visit him two months later, he rolls off the names of towns in Malawi, capital cities of African countries and national political leaders. He seems to be recovering.

Fiddling with a piece of dry hay, he tells us: “I want to finish school, to become a teacher, and move out of here. I would love if someone could take me away from this village. I have to get out of this place.”

Hari’s story

Village of Mpakati, Machinga district, southern Malawi

Edna Cedric remembers that night in February 2016.

Her husband, Marizane Kapiri, had gone fishing. Her identical nine-year-old twins, Hari and Harrison, were sleeping beside her.

She heard a knock at the door. When she answered it, a machete-wielding man barged inside, slashing at her.

He pulled Hari from the bed and dragged him to the door. Edna tried to hold on to him while also gripping Harrison with her other hand. 

Then the intruder struck her face with the machete and she fell to the floor. And, just like that, her son was gone.

The police brought the head wrapped in a cloth and in a sack. His mother identified it.– Marizane Kapiri, Hari’s stepfather 

“I couldn’t hold on to him any longer,” she says, quietly. “I ran out screaming.”

“Four days later, the police found his head in Mozambique.”

“The place was very lonely. This is why we moved here,” her husband says.

The fisherman is not the father of Edna’s children. He says he spent the best part of the five days after Hari was abducted explaining to the police why he wasn’t at home when the attack took place. They suspected that he was involved and it wasn’t until the village chief explained to them that he spent much of his time at the lake, catching fish to feed the family, that the police let him go.

“After the police discovered the head, they sent a message to us that we should be ready to see it,” Marizane explains. “They brought the head wrapped in a cloth and in a sack. His mother identified it.” 

According to Amnesty International, two men were arrested in connection with Hari’s murder. One was said to be an uncle, and the other a stranger who had an existing conviction for possessing the bones of a person with albinism. For that crime, he had been fined $30.

The family, though, say they have no idea who was responsible for the attack and what has become of those who were arrested.

The twin brother

Harrison is wearing pyjamas and a cowboy hat. He sits between his parents as they take turns to talk. He fiddles with the cords of his hat, licks his cracked lips and scratches at the dry skin on his arms. He only returned to school in September 2016, eight months after his brother was taken.

Their mudbrick home is in a remote rural area, far from the main road between Blantyre and Mangochi. Houses here sit in small plots on expansive fields. It is a few minutes’ walk to the nearest neighbours through fields of browning plants that haven’t been harvested in a year. Here, police officers are few and far between.

But this is not where Hari was taken from. That home was even more isolated, Marizane explains.

“We demolished the house … and moved here so we are closer to other people,” he says.

But the move hasn’t changed much for the remaining brother, Harrison. 

“He wakes up in the middle of night, screaming, because he can’t find his brother. We just tell him he will come back one day,” Marizane explains. 

He wakes up in the middle of night, screaming, because he can’t find his brother.– Marizane Kapiri, whose stepson, Hari, was murdered

Edna says that she can’t get over the pain she felt when she saw Hari’s head.

“I immediately thought about his brother, Harrison, and I knew his life would never be the same,” she says, looking at her surviving son.

2 – A History of Violence

Borrowed from the word “albus”, meaning white in Latin, albinism is a congenital disorder where the body is unable to create enough melanin to darken the skin, hair and eyes.

The non-contagious condition affects about one in 20,000 people worldwide. But it is more common in sub-Saharan Africa, where one in 5,000 have albinism. Most cases are in Mozambique, Tanzania, Burundi, Kenya, Zimbabwe and South Africa.

In Malawi, a country of 16.5 million people, there are said to be 7,000 to 10,000 people with albinism.

Why it affects this part of the world so disproportionately is unclear.

And it is not just a matter of colour: lack of melanin often results in poor vision and sensitivity to light. In fact, many people with albinism are legally blind.

Because their skin is particularly vulnerable to the sun’s ultraviolet rays, they can also be predisposed to skin cancer and lesions.

According to a 2014 study, people with albinism in Africa are 1,000 times more likely to get skin cancer than others.

But their plight is not solely medical.

The story of discrimination against people with albinism is an old but not necessarily well-documented one. It is driven by myths and superstition.

According to Amnesty International, those with albinism face discrimination in 23 countries in Africa.

For many, this discrimination amounts to violence – murder, infanticide and live burials.

The past decade has seen an increase in the number of documented killings and maimings of people with the condition, driven in part by a belief that their organs, bones and body parts can be sold on the black market.

And that belief is fed by the myth that their bones are made of gold dust and the suggestion that they are a necessary component of magic potions.

But while there are reports of bones reaching up to $75,000 on the black market, there have been no documented cases of money changing hands. So the question of whether an organised trade in the body parts of people with albinism exists has yet to be definitively answered.

The UN’s Ikponwosa Ero says they have been unable to confirm the existence of a market.

“There is allegedly a lot of money in this business. And I say allegedly because people keep on repeating the idea that there is a lot of money in this, and it would seem that the media is part of the reason some people have gotten involved,” she says. “But then some countries have witnessed a reduction in the number of attacks, maybe because people are realising there is no value [in the bones and body parts].”

The majority of the documented attacks have taken place in the Great Lakes region, particularly Tanzania and Burundi. According to media reports, Tanzania has seen some 180 attacks, including 76 murders, since 2000. Thirty-five of those murders took place in 2015.

Within eight months of her appointment as the UN’s independent expert on albinism in June 2015, Ikponwosa, who herself has albinism, documented 40 attacks in eight countries. 

Although there has long been discrimination, she points to a more recent phenomenon: “Hacking people [with albinism] alive.”

‘Millions, millions’

Zomba, southern Malawi

Emily Chiumia works at a government department in Zomba, southern Malawi. But she moonlights as an activist for people with albinism.

She’s happy to talk, even if the topic is the names they call her.

“You walk on the street, and they call you ‘millions, millions’,” she laughs, “as if we are gold.”

Emily is the former vice-president of the Association for Persons with Albinism (APAM). Since the attacks began, Emily and the association have been documenting the offences committed against people like her.

Most of them, she says, are carried out by relatives, neighbours or people the victims considered to be friends.

“Before, it was a case of people saying ‘if you sleep with a person with albinism, your skin will turn white’,” she says. “But now, it’s different. I cannot enjoy my life as I used to … I can’t walk in the evenings, can’t sleep, even at home, I fear who might come.” Her laugh has disappeared now.

You walk on the street, and they call you ‘millions, millions’, as if we are gold.– Emily Chiumia, former vice-president of the Association for Persons with Albinism

Radio DJ Ian Sambota describes how in 2012 he was befriended by an “older, educated” woman who first offered him K100,000 ($138) and then K500,000 ($700) to sleep with her. “She was HIV positive and she thought if she slept with a person with albinism, it would be solved,” he says.

Ian refused, but admits that the offer was tempting because he needed the money to pay for medical care for his mother.

Steven Burgess is in his 40s and says he has been called a “white animal” since he was a child. But this is “a time of crisis”, he explains, referring to the increase in attacks.

Bazirio Kaudzu, 46, says he feels so threatened that he only travels to the clinic in the capital Lilongwe – to collect the zinc oxide ointment needed to treat the lesions and blisters on his skin – if his nephew accompanies him. It’s an expensive journey for the tomato farmer, so each month he must take out a loan to cover the cost of the taxi ride for two.

But it hasn’t always been this way.

Patricia Maguwa, 37, remembers a time when her husband, gospel singer Geoffrey Zigoma, was considered one of the golden voices of Malawian music. Before he died of cancer in 2013, he always tried to offer a counter-narrative to the misperceptions about people with albinism, she says.

“He was called names like ‘yellow man’, but he never felt insecure about his life,” she says from her modest home 7km outside Lilongwe. “[But] the situation is different now.”

A shifting trade

Malawi’s government recognises that there is a problem.

Neverson Chisiza, a senior state advocate at the Ministry of Justice and Constitutional Affairs, says there have been at least 85 documented cases, including murder, assault, attempted abductions, trafficking, maiming, and grave robberies since 2014. At least 20 of those cases have been murder.

In May 2016, Ikponwosa Ero said that if serious action wasn’t taken to stop the attacks, people with albinism could become extinct in Malawi.

Malawi’s government says a crackdown in neighbouring Tanzania has shifted the “trade” in body parts to their country.

Senior Chief Kawinga, a traditional authority from Malawi’s Machinga district, where most of the attacks have taken place, told us during a visit to his office that he’d heard the market for body parts was in neighbouring Mozambique. Each country in the region tends to posit their neighbour as the source of the problem.

Though many people tend to use the term “albino”, there have been significant attempts to change the terminology to “person with albinism”. Ikponwosa Ero says this is preferred as it puts the person before the condition, while Canadian charity Under the Same Sun points to the fact that albino has historically been used in a derogatory manner.

In June 2016, 150 government officials, academics and activists from 26 countries met in Dar es Salaam for the first forum on albinism in Africa. It aimed to create an action plan to end the attacks, and concluded that governments must dedicate a budget and a multisectoral task force to doing so. It recommended a range of measures and best practices. “Now that we have a catalogue of effective specific measures that are not very expensive to execute, governments should no longer act ignorant of what to do on the issue … It is time to act,” said Ikponwosa Ero.

3 – The Perpetrators

Zomba, southern Malawi

The red brick walls glisten in the midday sun.

Zomba Maximum Prison stands like a citadel in the former capital. It might resemble a factory were it not for its watch towers and the metal fence that encircles it. Flanked by mango trees and shrubs, a dirt track leads to the main entrance.

Inside, some 2,365 prisoners are either awaiting trial or serving time for some of the most serious of crimes: murder, abduction, trafficking, and armed robbery.

The prison’s director, Major Manwell, greets us at the front door – an almost three-metre tall gateway made of green steel. He is wearing a khaki safari suit and leather sandals.

“How can I help you?” he asks with a knowing smile.

Manwell hands us over to two prison guards who lead us into an open corridor between the front desk and the staff kitchen. A makeshift clothes line hangs nearby. We sit on a bench, shaded by the prison’s towering walls.

Over the next three hours, we will meet eight prisoners who are either awaiting trial or have been convicted of playing some part in an attack on somebody with albinism.

One at a time, they sit opposite us on another wooden bench, a translator beside them.

A guard sits at a distance – far enough that his presence doesn’t feel intrusive, but close enough to eavesdrop. His body language tells us when he finds an inmate’s story of interest. When he doesn’t, he slumps back into his leather chair.

Just two of the inmates acknowledge that their case is related to someone with albinism. Most insist that they were framed or have been wrongly accused. Only one admits to having committed a crime.

“They are not able to come to terms with their crimes,” says the guard, removing his cap so that he can scratch his head. “They are in denial.”

The tomb raider

Stenala Shaibu Lizahapa is wearing a clean white shirt and tattered jeans. He takes his seat slowly and crosses his legs. A thin row of rosary beads pass through his fingers. Stenala is not in a hurry. Unlike the others, he doesn’t fidget. He simply sits and waits.

He is in his mid-30s and has been convicted of trespassing on a gravesite to remove three bones from the body of a deceased man named Awali Mandevu.

Along with five others, he was caught trying to sell the bones to an undercover police officer in April 2015.

All six were charged with criminal trespassing, removal of human tissue and selling human bones.

Three of them, including Stenala, pleaded guilty. Two others denied the charges and were acquitted, while the case against the sixth was dropped.

Stenala was sentenced to six years in prison.

He says he has made peace with his crime.

“What I did was wrong, but I felt desperate,” he says softly, only briefly making eye contact. “I feel ashamed.”

If there is a market [for bones], I don’t know… I would have believed it if I saw it. – Stenala Shaibu Lizahapa, sentenced to six years in prison for selling human bones

As a fisherman, he says he was earning K500 (70 cents) a day. So when friends asked if he’d help them deliver a set of bones to a client – promising it would make him “rich enough to drive” – he says he was tempted.

“With my income, I can’t afford a motorcycle, but a car – that was a dream … The devil took over me,” he says.

In early April 2015, Stenala travelled with friends from Machinga to his home district of Jali, where he went to Chinangwa, a village neighbouring his own, in search of a grave he’d been told housed the corpse of a person with albinism.

“Who doesn’t want more money?” he asks rhetorically. “I knew it was wrong, but I did it for my family.”

“If there is a market [for bones], I don’t know,” he says. “I would have believed it if I saw it.”

The victim’s family

Chinangwa village, Zomba district, southern Malawi

In the village of Chinangwa, Emily Emisi is sitting on a straw mat outside her mud brick and thatch-roofed home.

She offers us a mat on which to sit – between a couple of brown puppies and some corn drying in the winter sun.

“Why didn’t you call before you came?” the 36-year-old asks with a smile. “I would have cooked.”

Her generosity betrays her means. Her open yard – like the barren plateau that surrounds it – is hard brown earth. A few mango and small kachere trees surround the settlement.

Three children sit on the floor. For a while, they watch curiously. But when the novelty of strangers wears off, they return to kicking a punctured miniature football.

“It was my grandfather’s grave that Stenala dug up,” Emily says. “It was terrible. He was buried a long time [ago], in the 1990s. And this felt like a second funeral for him.”

Emily says it didn’t come as a surprise to many of the villagers when they learned that Stenala was responsible.

“He was known to steal goats,” she says.

Stenala had got into an argument with his brother weeks before when he’d tried to persuade him to help find the bones, Emily explains. His brother had refused and the argument had turned into a fight. The whole village heard about it, she says.

“Then, he tried to romance an albino girl, but the girl refused and told villagers that she was being pursued by him.”

She is “happy he has been put away”, she says, because he would “terrorise the village”.

Someone close to Stenala must have betrayed him, Emily speculates, because nobody knew that the village graveyard had been tampered with.

But, while she has no doubt that Stenala had been searching for the bones of somebody with albinism, Emily says he dug up the wrong grave.

“My grandfather, Awali Madenvu, was not an albino. But his grave was close to an albino and so they got the wrong bones.”

That wouldn’t have made any difference anyway – the penalty in Malawi is the same.

Because his was not a case of murder or attempted murder, Stenala wasn’t eligible for legal aid and so had no representation in court.

He was tried, sentenced and given 30 days to appeal.

When we tell Emily that Stenala admits his guilt and is remorseful, she clicks her tongue and looks away. “Of course, after the hardship in jail, he is going to be remorseful,” she says.

“He is not someone who will change. We all think that his sentence is too short, and we expect him to come back and teach us a lesson.”

‘I will wait for him’

As the sun is about to set, the silhouette of a woman appears through a haze of dust. She has a girl at her side and a baby in her arms.

“That is Annie Fuleya,” a young girl says. “Stenala’s wife.”

She is on her way to gather wood. Stenala’s home village of Jali is just a few hundred metres away. Emily’s family crosses paths with Stenala’s every day.

Annie is tall with a brush-cut. She wears a long green skirt and a pale blue T-shirt.

In the weeks leading up to the incident, the 26-year-old says her husband was acting strangely. She recalls asking him to stay away from a friend she thought was trouble.

“I didn’t believe it at first but then after the conviction I felt let down by him,” she reflects, looking away as she completes her sentence. Then, without looking back at us, she adds: “I believe that he did it.”

Annie was pregnant when her husband was arrested and must now raise their four-year-old daughter Saamyato and their now 14-month-old baby Latifa alone.

She left Machinga for Stenala’s village after his arrest, believing it was safer to be close to her mother-in-law. Now, she works in other people’s fields and depends on financial support from the extended family to help raise her children.

“All I know is that he was found with body parts of an albino. I don’t know what parts. I don’t know what he did. I just feel disappointed,” Annie says, holding on to Latifa as the baby wriggles in her arms.

“But I understand that he may have done it because of our situation. He doesn’t earn enough as a fisherman. He looks after me, his mother, my mother, and two orphaned children from an aunt,” she explains softly. “Perhaps this is what drove him to do this.”

“I will wait for him. Because I have forgiven him,” she adds. “But he will have to conduct himself properly on his return.”

Stenala’s mother, who has been watching pensively as her daughter-in-law talks, agrees to speak to us under the shadow of a large kachere tree. Elizabeth Magawa is 49, and the resemblance to her son is immediately apparent. She smiles when we tell her this and the children who have gathered around, burst into laughter.

Elizabeth seems tired. She says she has aged over the past year.

“I didn’t look like this,” she sighs. “I spend sleepless nights wondering why Stenala would have done such a thing. He always helped the family.”

“It is something I will never understand,” she says. Then, she adds: “But I know he was fully capable of such a thing.”

Maybe Stenala did it because of our poverty, or because of peer pressure. I don’t know. – Elizabeth Magawa, mother of Stenala Shaibu, sentenced to six years for selling human bones

Her son’s arrest brought the family unwanted attention in the village, but Elizabeth says they haven’t suffered any serious repercussions.

“There was a lot of talk. They spoke about bones. But they’ve moved on,” she says.

“Maybe Stenala did it because of our poverty, or because of peer pressure. I don’t know.”

It has grown cold now and, without warning, Annie stands up and walks away, in the direction of her mother-in-law’s house.

Elizabeth watches as her daughter-in-law disappears into the darkness, her young daughter in tow.

Charles Nyasa: Convicted of trying to sell human tissue

Charles Nyasa cries as he tells his story.

The 24-year-old from Zomba district was sentenced to six years for being in possession of human flesh in March 2015.

He says he heard an advert for a witch doctor on radio or television – he can’t recall which – that promised “quick riches”. But when he visited the witch doctor, he was told to bring the placenta of a newborn. So, he says, he spent K8,000 ($11) buying one from nurses at a hospital.

When he took it to the witch doctor, he was accused of carrying a placenta from a newborn with albinism.

He was convicted but insists his case had nothing to do with albinism.

John Alfred: Convicted of trying to sell a child

Thirty-one-year-old John Alfred looks older than his years. He is feverish and sweating profusely, but wants to talk.

John was sentenced to six years in prison for trying to sell his own child.

“I did it because of my [financial] condition. No other reason,” he says, shaking.

The father of five from Naweta village, in Machinga district, was earning K4,000 ($5.50) for two weeks’ work in the gardens and on the farms of a businessman.

“My boss saw me living in poverty and said to me one day: ‘Why don’t you be brave, and sell that child of yours?’ pointing to my daughter Vanessa. He said there were buyers in Mozambique for children like her.”

I had five children, and I thought that maybe it wasn’t a problem to get rid of one.– John Alfred, sentenced to six years for trying to sell his daughter

John says that his daughter does not have albinism but “resembled one”. The authorities at the prison say the child does have the condition, although there is no mention of it in his prison file.

“I had five children, and I thought that maybe it wasn’t a problem to get rid of one,” John says.

In April 2015, without consulting his wife, he took their four-year-old daughter and left for Mozambique.

“I didn’t know where I was going. I was just going to Mozambique to find this market,” he says.

But the police intercepted him in Machinga and arrested him.

“I admitted it in court and was sentenced,” he tells us.

Melinda Mbendera: Convicted of attempted kidnapping

Twenty-year-old Melinda Mbendera is agitated. She twitches and bites her lips as she talks.

She was found guilty of trying to kidnap a child with albinism and sentenced to three years’ imprisonment. But she insists that she is innocent. The court didn’t have enough evidence, she declares, and based their verdict solely on the claims of the child and her parents.

She says the judge told her that it would be safer for her to be in jail than on the streets, where she might face mob justice.

In 2016, 11 people suspected of being involved in digging graves or carrying human flesh were lynched in Malawi. In one case in the Nsanje district in March 2016, seven witch doctors accused of using bones in their potions were burned alive. A month earlier, a courthouse in the South Lunzu township in Blantyre, was razed to the ground after three people accused of murdering somebody with albinism had been bailed.

Melinda says she previously spent eight months in prison for stealing K200,000 ($275) from a family friend. She suspects her criminal record influenced the verdict in this case.

But, she maintains: “I didn’t spend eight months in this wretched place only to go out and commit another crime.”

“The police said that because I stole before, the probability was high that I did this … but why would I sell a human being?” she asks.

4 – A Question of Justice

Zomba, southern Malawi

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Edge Kanyongolo is a tall man with thick eyebrows and an even thicker moustache.

The associate professor of law at the University of Malawi in Zomba is sitting behind his desk. Behind him, a window showcases a courtyard garden. Beside him, textbooks and legal reports are carefully stacked on a wooden bookshelf.

“The attacks on persons with albinism are a manifestation of a larger problem,” he says. “On the surface, there is the question of superstition and witchcraft, but I think underlying all of that is desperation.”

Malawi has been in an economic crisis since 2012. It began when tobacco, the country’s premier export, dropped in price by more than 50 percent in 2010. In 2012, under the guidance of the International Monetary Fund, President Joyce Banda imposed a range of hard-hitting economic reforms that were most harshly felt by the poor. The currency was devalued by almost 50 percent and inflation reached more than 20 percent.

In 2015, the World Bank rated Malawi as the poorest country in the world, per capita.

Two out of every five Malawians of employable age are without work. According to the International Labour Organisation, three in four young workers have only irregular employment, while nine out of 10 work in the informal sector, where their employment is precarious and may change daily. At least 61 percent of Malawians live on less than $1.25 a day and 2.3 million are said to be food-insecure.

“People don’t have options to earn money. And this then drives them to be so desperate and, as some would say – so irrational – as to think that getting the body parts of a type of person and so on, may make you rich,” the professor explains.

But Elijah Kachikuwo, the senior deputy commissioner of police in Mangochi, disagrees. In fact, he grows agitated when questioned about the connection. He is standing in the dusty courtyard of the main police station in Mangochi.

“It is not poverty that is causing this,” he declares, the lines on his forehead deepening. “We aren’t faced with poverty for the first time in the country. We shouldn’t hide behind this … so that question is out of order.”

The traditional healers

Mphalare in Dedza, central region of Malawi

Masiyambuyo Njolomole and Usmani Ibrahima Banda live in the remote village of Mphalare in Dedza. It is 80km – about an hour’s drive along a dirt track – from Lilongwe.

They are both traditional healers.

Seven wooden stools lined up against a wall and a small coffee table are the only furniture inside the house where we meet them. There is no electricity, so the door has been left ajar. The sunlight illuminates the two men’s faces. A woman sweeps the yard outside, scraping at the dry earth.

Usmani wears a skull cap; Masiyambuyo a headdress made from monkey skin. The latter smiles as he presents his registration card. Usmani’s expired in 2011.

Masiyambuyo, a tall, thin man, makes it clear that neither of them use bones of any kind in their potions. He says “people like him” are being made scapegoats for criminals and a political conspiracy because the government has lost control of the situation. “This is a syndicate by some influential people in this country who are interested in body parts of albinos. They simply want to take the attention away from them; that is why they are accusing us,” he declares.

“Albinos have existed for a long time and we have also existed for a long time,” he adds.

In June 2016, Malawi’s High Court banned “witch doctors, traditional healers, charm sellers, fortune tellers and magicians,” in an effort to quell the trade in the bones of people with albinism.

Traditional healers such as Usmani and Masiyambuyo argue that only hurts the people they help.

“People think we deal with witchcraft, but we are here to help people,” Masiyambuyo says, earnestly, opening his arms.

According to the Traditional Healers Association of Malawi, up to 97 percent of the population visit traditional healers and herbalists. It is hard to verify this but it is clear that many people do use them, particularly in rural areas, where the state is often conspicuous by its absence.

There are two physicians and 59 nurses for every 100,000 people in Malawi. The ratio is the lowest in all of sub-Saharan Africa

Usmani says that, in such circumstances, the services he and Masiyambuyo provide are critical.

People think we deal with witchcraft, but we are here to help people.– Masiyambuyo Njolomole, a traditional healer based in Dedza

He was trained by his father, the softly spoken traditional healer explains, and used to specialise in sexually transmitted diseases. But, “nowadays, [it’s] cancer, blood pressure, asthma, using herbs and a mixture from seven trees” he adds, showing us plastic packets of concoctions made primarily from plants.

“People come to me when the hospitals have failed them.”

Dr Chilani is the spokesperson for Malawi’s Traditional Healers Association and tells us over the phone that “everyone [in the country], [from] farmers to politicians” uses traditional healers.

Many believe that illness involves an “element of being bewitched”, he explains. But, he insists, “sending people to kill others” isn’t part of their craft.

“We help people, we don’t kill them,” he says.

The new law targeting unlicensed traditional healers would purportedly help end these crimes. But the line between traditional healer and witch doctor isn’t always clear.

Mary Shawa, the former principal secretary at the Ministry of Gender, Children, Disability and Social Welfare, says the distinction lies in registration. “No one who obeys the law needs to feel threatened,” she explains.

Chilani’s Facebook page offers “revenge spells, fertility spells, magic rings and witchcraft spells”, but also asks that anyone with information about the bones of somebody with albinism contact him so that it can be reported to the police. He says no one has been in touch.

“If we have been around for generations, and the killings of persons with albinism began roughly two years ago, what were we doing all this time?” he asks.

One lawyer for every 38,500 Malawians 

Lilongwe, central region of Malawi

Piles of paper cover Masauko Chamkakala’s desk. The director of Legal Aid, the body tasked with representing those who cannot afford legal representation, is in his office in Area 4 of Lilongwe.

The country’s legal system, he says, is a mess.

“More than 90 percent of the population cannot afford legal representation. We have seven lawyers for the entire country,” he says, his hands clasped and eyebrows raised.

The Legal Aid Act stipulates that anyone charged with a crime that could result in a custodial sentence is entitled to legal aid, but limited resources have resulted in the courts restricting this to homicide cases.

A 2013 report found that Malawi had fewer than 400 lawyers. That was one lawyer for every 38,500 people.

The jails are overcrowded and suspects can wait months or even years before their cases go to trial.

“If you go to the prisons [and] start going through the cases, you realise that so many of these people are not supposed to be there,” Masauko says, pointing out that: “For an ordinary person to get an appointment with a lawyer will cost him K20,000 ($27), while the [monthly] minimum wage is K18,000 ($25).”

Then there is the question of entrapment – a method that police officers have admitted to using but one which has so far led only to the arrest of sellers.

More than 90 percent of the population cannot afford legal representation. We have seven lawyers for the entire country.– Masauko Chamkakala, the director of Legal Aid

In a side office near Malawi’s High Court, Neverson Chisiza, a senior state advocate at Malawi’s Ministry of Justice and Constitutional Affairs, acknowledges that there have been discussions within the ministry about “why it is always sellers, those who are desperate [and] looking for quick money, [who] are caught, not the buyers”.

And without the buyers, the police are little closer to understanding the source of this trade.

Masouko says that the hysteria over the killings of people with albinism has reached such a height that “it is possible a person could be convicted for carrying antelope bones because they resemble human bones”.

And, he adds, those accused of any crime related to people with albinism are tried in “people’s courts”.

A question of government preparedness

Lilongwe, central region of Malawi

It is late on a Friday afternoon when Mary Shawa meets us in her office and her team are about to leave for the day. She is responsible for the security, health and wellbeing of Malawians with albinism.

“Until the atrocities started, we didn’t look at persons with albinism as people with a disability. We saw them as ordinary people,” she says, adjusting her glasses.

She slumps back into her chair. “If you look at the demographics, they are young and old, some working as lawyers and teachers, some still in school,” she adds.

Before moving to this ministry in 2012, Mary was the secretary for nutrition, HIV and Aids in the president’s office, credited with tackling the country’s HIV pandemic

She speaks authoritatively and frankly, rejecting any suggestion that the government hasn’t done enough to address the crimes committed against people with albinism. She rattles off the details of cases that have been solved and cites “ministerial research” to suggest that there is no market for the bones.

“[The] culprits get the bones and walk around looking for a market to sell them,” she says. 

Mary says her ministry has been leading a communications plan to tackle the crisis. “The radio messages, the billboards, this is all us,” she explains.

But it’s hard to tell if anyone is listening.

“We are also compiling a census, to register all persons with albinism in the country,” she says, leaning forward, her hands resting on the desk.

But beyond the issue of security, people with albinism have other needs – sunscreen, hats and sunglasses to protect them from the sun. The Ministry of Health does provide zinc oxide at clinics but that only helps with the blisters and lesions and doesn’t offer any protection. Moreover, patients have to travel to the main cities to access the ointment.

Mary hints at a lack of funding. Malawi is heavily reliant on donors, and it’s unlikely that sunscreen or hats top the government’s financial priorities or a foreign government’s agenda.

Village of Nambilikira, Dedza district, eastern Malawi

5 – The Future

Confident, assertive and friendly, Clement Gweza seems as though he was born to teach. He transforms the 60 rowdy teenagers into an orderly classroom and begins his social and environmental science lesson by scribbling “How to prevent air pollution” on the blackboard.

The 24-year-old is smartly dressed in an off-white shirt, pinstriped tie and black trousers.

“It was difficult at first,” he says. “The children found it hard to understand my albinism, because people, not just the learners, don’t think that a person with albinism can do something that can be recognised by society.”

He became a teacher, he says, because the tuition was free and he couldn’t afford to pay to study anything else.

At first, he worried that his students wouldn’t respect him. But, he says, “after a few weeks, the learners came round. They will tell you: ‘Ah! He is a good teacher and he understands our problems’.”

But he knows that, despite the respect he enjoys in the classroom, he is not safe outside of it.

The murder of one of his students, David Fletcher, made him afraid.

He has stopped walking outside at night and, if he must, he asks a close friend or relative to accompany him.

“If I can’t find someone to take me home, I will stay where I am and sleep there. I have no choice,” he says.

“Everything has changed. I look at the people, the friends around me, and I think ‘maybe he wants to kill me and make some money’.”

Stercia Kanyowa’s story

Masumpankhunda, in Lilongwe, central Malawi

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Twelve-year-old Stercia Kanyowa says she doesn’t want to beg. She wants an education, and to stand on her own two feet.

“I want to be a teacher first. Then maybe a journalist or a bank manager,” she declares.

Stercia is one of three children with albinism at the Malingunde School for the Visually Impaired. As an only child from a single-parent household, she says completing school is her only hope for the future. She has been here since 2011.

“Of course, I miss home. It’s long since I have gone home. Who doesn’t miss home?” she says, outside her dormitory.

The school is government-run, and functions almost exclusively on donations. There are 17 classrooms and 40 teachers for 3,000 students.

There is no electricity. Inside Stercia’s classroom, some students are huddled around braille machines, while others, such as 15-year-old Foster Kennedy, who also has albinism, use a magnifying glass to read textbooks.

“Everyone here is a friend. You would think we are born from the same mother,” Foster says, smiling.

He wants to be a radio personality or a songwriter, he explains.

The school yard is a thoroughfare for people walking or cycling to the town centre, which means that there are always strangers passing through. This concerns the school authorities. Without a wall or a gate, the school is vulnerable to theft and the students to being attacked. In early 2015, a 16-year-old student with albinism was almost abducted by a stranger who promised to buy her supplies from the local market.

“It is an open place. And anything can happen,” says Chiko Kamphandira, the school principal.

Back outside, Stercia, who is head of the school choir, begins to sing one of her favourite songs, before stopping suddenly, self-conscious and shy.

“I am going to work hard and fulfill my dreams,” she says. “I don’t see myself as any different. I am just a human being.”

Ian Simbota’s story

Blantyre, southern Malawi

Ian Simbota is eating a chicken tikka burger at a Pakistani fast food diner when we spot him one evening in Blantyre.

When we ask to talk to him, he scans our journalists’ credentials before agreeing. It turns out that he gets paid to talk as a late-night radio talk show host and a DJ with the Malawi Broadcasting Corporation. And he has just returned from Kasungu, in the central region of Malawi, where he was the master of ceremonies for World International Albinism Awareness Day.

When he finishes his meal, he invites us to the radio studio.

Once on the airwaves, the slightly pensive man we met at the restaurant is no more. He taunts and teases his listeners. The studio is his safe place.

Later on, he talks of a double life. As a radio star, his voice and name are widely recognised. But not all of his listeners know that he has albinism. And there are times when his confident persona gives way to fear.

“Look, I am working at night. And people know I am here,” he says. “What are they thinking, planning? From here I will get a car and go home. And when I go home, I feel unsafe. What if they attack me? I think about it all the time.”

Ian became a full-time DJ in 2015. It was a dream come true. “I wanted to be a midwife as a child [but] thankfully my mother convinced me otherwise,” he laughs.

“And then, I wanted to be a radio host. Geoffrey Zigoma [the gospel singer] made a huge impact on my life.”

But life hasn’t been easy for Ian.

When he was born, he was the second child in his family to have albinism. His father walked out on them.

“My father told my mum to kill us. When she refused, he left,” he says, matter-of-factly.

“At that time, people didn’t know about the genes and stuff. My dad thought it was a curse.”

Ian’s mother left her village in southern Malawi and came to Blantyre with her two children to look for a job. She found one as a cleaner at the College of Medicine.

His father remarried. His next child was also born with albinism.

School was tough for Ian. He says his teachers didn’t realise that he was visually impaired so would just call him lazy. When he completed his certificate in journalism and applied for internships in radio, his visual impairments worked against him again – station managers were concerned that he wouldn’t be able to see the computer screens, he says.

Then his mother died after a prolonged illness, and the new job felt like the start of a new life for him. But then the attacks on people with albinism began.

“I can tell you, it has become difficult,” he says. “I have friends. But at this point in time, I only trust one friend in my circle. I have other friends, but then sometimes, you just wonder, you know, maybe, he is being used [to get close to me].”

He also has to face harassment on the streets and says his girlfriend left him last year because “she couldn’t deal with what … [he] was going through”.

But today he’s the voice of a successful radio show.

“I like radio because you could come naked to the studio and it doesn’t matter. People are listening to your voice,” he says, pausing for a second, before laughing.

“I have done a little bit of TV, but radio is better because listeners create a different picture of what they think you are. It’s only now [with the crisis] that people realise I am a person with albinism …”

Source: Malawi: killed for their bones – on the trail of the trade in human body parts

Liberia: Joseph Marzah, key Massaquoi ally, says Finnish Court got it wrong

Earlier this month I already reported on the acquittal of Gibril Massaquoi, who stood trial in Finland, accused of war crimes and human rights violations during Liberia’s civil war. See my post entitled Liberia war crimes: Sierra Leone rebel commander acquitted of rape, ritual murder and the recruitment of child soldiers.

The article below refers to statements made by Joseph Marzah, a former rebel-general and a former key ally of Gibril Massaquoi. Joseph Marzah, commonly known as “Zizar Marzah” said that the Finnish District Court got it wrong when it acquitted Massaquoi of charges of war crimes and crimes against humanity allegedly committed in Liberia.

The reason for including Marzah’s observations and denial is to demonstrate the complexity of war crimes courts and the handling of accusations against suspected perpetrators of war crimes including ritualistic murders. The fact that during Liberia’s civil war(s) ritualistic activities including ritual murders have been committed is not disputed. For shortness sake I may refer here to the Final Report of Liberia’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission released in 2009, which report provides ample examples of these horrific crimes.

(To be continued, see my May 24 posting)
(webmaster FVDK)

Liberia: Key Massaquoi Ally Says Finnish Court Got it Wrong

Published: May 17, 2022
By: FrontPage Africa – FPA Exclusive by Anthony Stephens with New Narratives

MONROVIA – A key former ally of Gibril Massaquoi, the Revolutionary United Front commander, says a Finnish District Court got it wrong when it acquitted Massaquoi of charges of war crimes and crimes against humanity allegedly committed in Liberia.

Joseph Marzah, commonly known as “Zizar Marzah”, was a fierce general with then-president Charles Taylor’s forces in the period Finnish prosecutors alleged Massaquoi conducted his crimes during a trial that lasted more than a year. Marzah was a key figure, accused repeatedly by witnesses of atrocities allegedly committed with Massaquoi in Lofa County. In an exclusive interview with New Narratives last week at his residence along the Monrovia-Robertsfield highway, Marzah insisted Massaquoi was among the RUF troops Taylor sent to Liberia to help defend his government against the uprising by the Liberians United for Reconciliation and Democracy (LURD) rebel group that would eventually drive Taylor to resign in August 2003.

In an 850-page ruling, the Finnish judges found there was “reasonable doubt” as to whether Massaquoi, who denied the charges, was in Liberia when the alleged crimes took place. They acquitted Massaquoi of all charges. Prosecutors plan to appeal.

“Gibril Massaquoi fully took part in war here,” Marzah said listing the Lofa towns he was with Massaquoi. “He passed through the towns of Zorzor, Fessibu and Vasala.”

Marzah said Massaquoi was decorated with the rank of Captain at Taylor’s direction because of his strong performance on the frontlines of battle.

“Gibril Massquoi was assigned to me. When we sent him for our logistics like arms and ammunition, he went for them and brought them to us,” said Marzah. “Where there was intense fighting, he joined us to fight. In 2001 and 2002, he was with us, and we battled LURD in Chicken Soup Factory, Double Bridge, ELWA and Shefflin.”

Marzah’s claims back the allegations put forward by Finnish prosecutors that Massaquoi had been active in Liberia’s second civil war between 1999 and 2003. The indictment alleged Massaquoi committed rape, torture, ritual murder, torture and recruitment of child soldiers in villages in Lofa County in the years 2000-2002.

In the most shocking crime heard during trial, Liberian witnesses testified that dozens of women and children were forced into a kitchen building that was set alight, burning them to death.

Marzah, no doubt mindful of his own risk of prosecution, did not concede that he and Massaquoi committed any crimes. But he insisted Massaquoi was with him, as many had witnesses testified, in Lofa during the 2001-2002 period.

“If Gibril Massaquoi denies that he was with me, NPFL, I would like for us to sit face-to-face (in court) so that I can question him like the scenario between Taylor and I. I fear nothing.”

However, Marzah cast doubt on the most contentious prosecution accusation: that Massaquoi escaped a UN-backed safehouse in Freetown between June and August 2003 to fight for Taylor in the Waterside area of Monrovia. 

“In 2003, I only heard that he came (from Sierra Leone) and went back. I was assigned to Grand Cape Mount County at the time.”

Marzah claimed Massaquoi escaped Liberia in 2002 after he stole from Taylor.

“After we had made two trips (with two jars of diamonds) along with the logistics to Taylor, he left us because he ran away with the third jar of diamonds,” said Marzah. “When the order came that if we saw Gibril Massaquoi, we should execute him because of the diamonds he stole and ran away with, I didn’t see him then.”

Massaquoi’s Lawyer, Kaarle Gummerus denied commenting on Marzah’s allegations, telling this reporter in a WhatsApp message “the defense does not feel the need to comment on Mr. Marzah’s allegations”.

Marzah said he was approached by representatives of the Finnish investigators in the case and was willing to testify. He did not say why he was not called to give evidence.

In a WhatsApp message Tom Laitienen, the Chief Prosecutor for the case said “We considered Marzah as a witness, but practical issues hindered us from hearing him. We will most likely consider him again if he agrees to testify.”

When pressed as to what the practical issues may have been Laitinen said “unfortunately, I cannot discuss them in detail, but they include his possible role in the suspected crimes and his role as a witness to the Special Court.”

It is not clear that Marzah’s testimony would have made a difference in the verdict. The court found many of the witnesses, including those who claimed to be ex-soldiers of Charles Taylor’s army, were unreliable. It said they had provided contradictory and inconsistent statements between the investigation and the trial. The court found it likely they had been influenced to a degree.

“The witnesses’ accounts have been very similar in some respects, and in some respects they have changed in court in the same way compared to the pre-trial phase,” said the ruling. “This has been the case in particular with regard to the time of the events. This suggests a kind of collective processing of the facts on the basis of which the witnesses formed their perceptions, or at least external influences. In some respects it has been difficult to distinguish between what was based on the witness’s own observations and what was otherwise based on information obtained by the witness. These factors undermine the reliability and relevance of individual reports as evidence.”

While the court was persuaded that Massaquoi, whose testimony played a key role in the conviction of Taylor and a dozen top rebel leaders in the Special Court for Sierra Leone, held very high rank in the RUF, it was not convinced he committed war crimes in Liberia.

The Court’s ruling was almost entirely about inconsistencies in the witnesses’ testimonies. It cited as examples, where some of the witnesses were not exact about key dates and names of individuals who may have carried out crimes. In one instance, witnesses accused Massaquoi of being responsible for mass killings in Kamatahun, Lofa County. In another instance, they attributed the crimes to Marzah.

“It has emerged from several witness accounts that “Zig Zag” Marzah or “Stanley” [another Taylor commander] had been responsible for the burning of people in the Lofa area, especially in Kamatahun.”  

Marzah Denies Allegations

Marzah, now 64 and living in a remote part of his native Nimba County, denies he committed any atrocities.

He claimed to have provided safety for members of the Gbandi tribe, who were allegedly burnt alive in buildings, because, he claimed, his wife was a Gbandi woman. Marzah denied he was in the town when the alleged killings took place.

“It was Benjamin Yeaten [another top Taylor commander known as “Chief 50”] who sent Brigadier General Gourtor, [known as “Idi Amin” after the late Ugandan President], “Butu Lazen” and the late “Busy Boy”. They went to Kamatahun Hassala to carry out those executions,” Marzah alleged.

Yeaten, whose whereabouts are unknown, was mentioned many times by witnesses. They told the court Yeaten was very close to Taylor and coordinated the operations of government and RUF forces. Taylor, who is currently serving a 50-year sentence in a British jail for aiding and abetting Sierra Leone’s civil war, funded the operations of the RUF by giving them arms and ammunitions in exchange for diamonds according to the Special Court. 

Marzah said there were times that both RUF and Taylor’s forces backed up each other, depending on the scale of the attacks they experienced from opponents.

Special Court former Trial Attorney Backs Marzah’s Comments

Marzah’s comments were backed up by Chris Santora, a former Trial Attorney for the UN-backed Special Court for Sierra Leone and on the Taylor trial.

“Whoever really understands well the history of the links between Charles Taylor and the RUF trial knows that top RUF commanders were often in Liberia interacting at many levels with Benjamin Yeaten and Charles Taylor throughout 2000 and 2001,” said Santora.

“The reasons were many not least of which was Taylor’s use of the RUF in his own war in Liberia but also this was when the diamond pipeline was at its peak as the RUF had firm control of the diamond areas of Kono. Many of these RUF commanders including Massaquoi were back and forth frequently through 2001 as they were running diamonds. (sometimes their own side deals others through Taylor) The finding of the Finish District Court which says that Gibril Massaquoi was not anymore traveling at all to Liberia after June 2001 does not accord with the overwhelming evidence I myself have seen. It doesn’t make sense in the larger context of events at that time period,” said Santora.

Marzah Supports a War Crimes Court for Liberia

Once considered a Taylor trusted general, Marzah, dismissed allegations that he betrayed his former boss. But he said he did oppose Taylor by the end. He was  “killing our people slowly,” Marzah said. He blamed Taylor for the murders of a long list of individuals, including Enoch Dogolea, Taylor’s first Vice President and Samuel Dokie, a leading opposition politician with the Unity Party at the time.

Marzah is ranked 66th on a list of 100 most notorious perpetrators recommended for prosecution for gross human rights violations by Liberia’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission. But in the interview he expressed support for a war crimes court and said he was willing to appear.

“I prefer it to be in Liberia,” he said. “There are some wicked people. Some did nothing, some went in the government because they have connections. Some carried out destruction. So, it’s better for the war crimes court to come to sifter all of us. I am willing for it to come. That’s the time we all will explain everything in detail.”

Prosecutors will file a motion to appeal the District Court’s acquittal in coming weeks.

This story was produced in collaboration with New Narratives as part of its West Africa Justice Reporting Project.

Source: Liberia: Key Massaquoi Ally Says Finnish Court Got it Wrong

Ghana money rituals: Why ritual murder dey on de rise for Ghana

The focus of the September 2021 article showing below is clear even though it’s in Pidgin English, a mixture of English and local languages spoken in Ghana. It refers to several ritual killing cases which have already been reported on this site, like the notorious Kasao ritual murder case. It also refers to the role of media, notably television, which has also been addressed in previous posts.

The main theme is clear: ritual murder cases are in the rise in Ghana, a worrisome phenomenon. The article below scratches the surface of the roots of the problem: superstition, lack of education – even though education provides no guarantee – and a weak rule of law, sometimes caused by institutional factors, sometimes attributed to connivance of authorities at the highest level.

The eradication of ritualistic activities including murder must have a high priority of lawmakers and those who are responsible for upholding the law. It’s a question of protection of human rights, notably the right to live and to live without fear, and of having a modern, democratic society in conformity with what one may expect in the 21st century.
(webmaster FVDK)

Ghana money rituals: Why ritual murder dey on de rise for Ghana

Published: September 2021
By: Seth Kofi Yeboah – BBC

Two teenagers bin allegedly kill dis 11-year old boy afta witch doctor allegedly direct dem to do so

Ritual murder be major issue Ghanaians dey deal with after de country start dey record multiple cases dis year.

In de past, some of de most infamous ritual murderers target women, but recently children be de target of ritual murders for Ghana.

But question wey dey on de minds of many people be why ritual murder dey on de rise for Ghana. 

Why ritual killings dey increase for Ghana

Unemployment be major challenge which most Ghanaian youth dey face. 

Dis unemployment challenge create economic hardships give young people who dey look for get rich quick schemes to escape poverty. 

Security Analyst, Adam Bonaa dey argue say jobless youth dey take up criminal means to survive. 

”While internet fraud, robbery, money laundering den tins be criminal activities de youth dey engage in, some people dey see ritual killings as option.

“De killings dey happen sake of Spiritualists who dey promise patrons money”, he talk. 

Popular traditional priest, Nana Kwaku Bonsam explain dis better, according to him, ‘fake’ traditional priests dey demand for people to satisfy some very difficult conditions like bringing human parts den tins.

Dis be one of de reasons why ritual killings dey on de rise. 

Dis show in de recent Kasoa killing case where two teenagers allegedly kill 12 year old neighbour sake of fetish priestess allegedly direct dem to bring human parts.

“De misconception be say once dem use human blood do rituals, dis dey make de vodoo more potent” Nana Kwaku Bonsam talk. 

De implication be de needless killings to meet conditions of fetish priests off late.

‘Fetish priests who request for human parts be scammers’

Nana Kwaku Bonsam
Wetin we call dis foto, Nana Kwaku Bonsam

For popular traditional priest, Kwaku Bonsam, de use of human blood no dey make any vodoo potent. 

After de murder of three kids for Abesim, he reveal say most fetish priests dey request for human parts be scammers. 

According to Kwaku Bonsam, “de only blood sacrifice traditional priest dey need to perform any ritual be animal blood.”

“But some traditionalists who want make money from unsuspecting people, dey charge den big monies in addition, dem go request human parts which dem know say go be difficult to do”, he explain. 

“Once you no fit do am de money you give dem lock, again you no go expect any vodoo money sake of you no bring de human parts”, Nana Kwaku Bonsam add. 

“In de end, monies wey all de people who visit carry give dem as part of de ritual go be for dem – that be how dem dey scam people”, he explain. 

Increase in On-air radio/TV/online adverts by fetish priests

Another cause of ritual killings be de increase in adverts by fetish priests who dey advertise say dem fit double money or give people charm to make money. 

De failure of key state institutions who for control content on public radio and TV dey make some youth vulnerable to de spiritual scammers.

Those who go follow de public adverts, radio and TV shows go visit de fetish priests for money solutions dey end up going extreme lengths to kill innocent people as part of de ritual process. 

Early dis year, Ghana Communicate Minister, Ursula Owusu make police arrest owner of Thunder TV and Ice1 TV sake of dem dey broadcast shows on money doubling rituals den stuff.

According to Ursula Owusu, “unregulated television stations dey promote some content which dey affect public order, public morality den rights.”

Authorities for Ghana start dey shut down TV den radio stations who dey run adverts on ritual money den tins. 

Violence turn currency in Ghana

Security analyst, Dr Kwesi Aning believe say Ghana go continue to experience crimes like ritual murder sake of people dey see am as profitable venture. 

According to am, “crime turn profitable venture in dis country such that we no know what to do.

“Dis in addition to de weak criminal justice system for Ghana which dey fail to arrest and prosecute criminals dey punish encourage more crime”, Aning add.

Security agencies for Ghana over de years fail to deal with crimes in de country like robbery, kidnapping den ritual murders. 

Dis according to analysts dey encourage more people to attempt criminal activities like ritual murder of kids sake of dem feel say police no go investigate and bring dem to justice.

In 2019, de kidnapping of three girls for Takoradi go under police radar until media start dey report on de matter. 

De many media reports put pressure on de Ghana Police Service to investigate, identify suspects den later retrieve de bodies of de girls. 

After media make de issue of kidnapping a national issue, de police service make de issue step up dema investigations leading to arrest and prosecution of de suspects behind Takoradi girls who dem discover dead. 

What Ghana law say about ritual murderers

Ghana dey classify murder as first degree felony, publishable by death. 

Ghana lawyer, Oliver Barker-Vormawor explain say based on section 46 of the Criminal Code, 1960 (Act 29) people who commit murder go suffer de death penalty.

Despite de death sentence, Ghana shun dey effect de death sentence since 1993.

Sake of dis, in practice death row inmates dey serve life imprisonment whenever court sentence murderer to death.

Source: Ghana money rituals: Why ritual murder dey on de rise for Ghana

Malawi: Catholic priest and 11 others convicted of killing albino for ritual purposes

The Southern African country of Malawi is notorious for its attacks and killings of persons with albinism. As I reported earlier this year “Malawi is the worst case on the whole African continent as far as attacks, abductions and killings of persons with albinism is concerned.” (see my January 4, 2022 posting).

Arrest of suspects involved in ritual murders of people with albinism and prosecution is rare but, as the case below demonstrates, it does happen.

The Masambuka murder case dates as far back as 2018. A painful fact: the murder of MacDonald Masambuka in 2018 occurred in a wave of gruesome killings of people with albinism, resulting in over 40 murders and 145 assaults on them. See the following article.
(webmaster FVDK)

Catholic priest and 11 others convicted of killing albino for ritual purposes

Published: May 3, 2022
By: Andreas Kamasah – Pulse, Ghama

A Malawian High Court has found guilty a Catholic priest and 11 others of killing a man with albinism with the intent to use his body parts for witchcraft rituals.

MacDonald Masambuka, 22, was gruesomely murdered in 2018 and some suspects were arrested in connection with his death, and their trials have since been ongoing.

Interestingly, the deceased’s own brother was also among the people who have been convicted and are awaiting sentencing.

The murder of Masambuka follows a spike in gruesome killings of people with albinism, resulting in over 40 murders and 145 assaults on them.

The perpetrators of these murders hold the false belief that using body parts of albinos engenders wealth and luck.

Speaking after the court proceedings, Malawi’s director of public prosecutions, Steve Kayuni, told AFP that Masambuka’s brother had conspired with other accomplices to kill him.

The convicted brother of the deceased lured him to meet his friends, who he claimed had found him [Masambuka] a woman to marry. Little did he know that they were going to kill him.

“MacDonald was betrayed by those he had trust in, namely the brother, the priest, the policeman, and the clinical officer. These are positions of trust,” the official said, as quoted by Thecitizen.co.tz.

The High Court on Thursday concluded that the 12 plotted to kill Masambuka to extract his bones for rituals that they were hoping to benefit from financially.

Reading the decision, judge Dorothy NyaKaunda Kamanga said: “This is a violation of the right to human life and the greatest violation of the rights to life and integrity for persons with albinism.”

Sentencing of the convicts has been set for May 31.

Meanwhile, the court’s ruling has sparked reactions among activists. Former UN rapporteur on albinism, Ikponwosa Ero, lamented that the latest discovery “points to a serious safety issue for people with albinism in Malawi”.

Steve Kayuni, revealed that there are around 20 cases under prosecution in Malawi courts involving the murder, attempted murder, exhumation, and selling of body tissue of people with albinism.

Source: Catholic priest and 11 others convicted of killing albino for ritual purposes

Devastating 2019 report on attacks of persons with albinism in 28 African countries

In 2019, the commendable private organization Under The Same Sun released a report which shocked all who read its contents. The report is a kind of inventory, taking stock of reported cases of killings and attacks on people with albinism in nearly 30 countries, virtually all African countries. The attacks include attempted abductions, mutilations, rape, and missing persons. Overall, the report mentions a staggering number of over 200 murders and nearly 400 attacks on persons with albinism in 29 countries : 28 African countries and the USA. Since we focus on this site on the African continent, the US case has been omitted here (even though the case which is being described in much detail is shocking and revolting. The interested reader who wishes to learn more about this case, may consult the original report which can be accessed by clicking on the link under Source mentioned, at the bottom of this post).

Some of the cases presented below have been reported earlier on this site. It does not diminishes their shocking nature. It’s a bloody shame that persons with albinism are still being targeted in so many countries, just because some superstitious and/or criminal people who have no respect for other people’s life believe that their organs, blood and body parts contain supernatural powers. In some (many? too many!) cases, governments do not take sufficient action to apprehend and prosecute the culprits and punish them according to the law after they have been tried by an impartial court. Sometimes this lack of action is explained by the fact that high-placed people, politicians or businessmen, are somehow involved in the reported cases. Governments also fail to act when they fail to eradicate superstition, the believe in witchcraft by educating people. It is superstition which lies at the base of these heinous crimes whereas lack of governmental action, corruption and connivance of police and judicial authorities enable the perpetrators to continue unabated.

I have drawn attention to the admirable work of the organization Under The Same Sun and its founder and president Peter Ash on several previous occasions. I may refer to my writings and reporting in 2008 which can be found here. I particular I wish t remind the reader of the interview which Peter Ash gave in 2008 when he stated that he believes that the total number of deadly victims of crimes targeting people with albinism in a country like Tanzania is twice the official figure. Click here for the shocking 5 minutes interview.

Today we live in 2022, 14 years after Peter Ash gave this interview and three years after the 2019 report presented below. In many countries the repugnant crimes against people with albinisme continues. They continue to be rejected, discriminated, abducted, and killed, murdered, slaughtered in cold blood.

It’s high time for action!

NB: Please read carefully the preceding three notes before accessing the country reports.

Warning: I wish to warn the readers of the extreme graphic nature of the following stories included in the various country reports ((webmaster FVDK).

Published: May 1, 2019
By: Under The Same Sun

Homepage Under the Same Sun

Reported Attacks of Persons with Albinism (PWA) – Most Recent Attacks Included (as of 2019)

Total Number of Killings: 209 

Total Number of Attacks: 378
Attacks include survivors of mutilations, violence, rape, attempted abductions, missing, grave violations, asylum & other refuge cases. 

Total Number of Reported Cases: 587 

Total Number of Countries: 29
(NB: Note of the webmaster: the case of the USA, mentioned in the original report, has been omitted here, resulting in 28 African countries.)

NOTE 1: Many attacks & killings of People with Albinism (PWA) in Africa are not documented or reported. Under The Same sun (UTSS) is certain that crimes of colour against PWA are common in various parts of almost all African countries. LEGENDS & MYTHS ABOUND, AND UTSS HAS YET TO HEAR OF ONE THAT IS HUMANIZINGMost myths reduce PWA to ghosts, magical beings or curses, etc. On rare occasion the discrimination is reversed and the PWA are “deified” into “gods”. Either way, they rarely get to enjoy their status as normal human beings. Many countries have stories about the mysterious disappearance of PWA. There is a growing, documented truth to these rumors. We know that many PWA have “disappeared” due to abduction, then mutilated and killed by fellow citizens (sometimes family members “friends” or neighbours) for the purpose of witchcraft related rituals. These ritual attacks frequently find their roots in ancient ancestral beliefs, are a familiar concept to most Africans, and have been going on since time beyond memory.

NOTE 2: Countries known to be involved in the cross-border trade of PWA and their body parts: Tanzania, Burundi, Kenya, DRC, Mozambique, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland,

NOTE 3: UTSS gathers this data from its own field research and also from its partners on
the ground. We record cases that have been thoroughly verified. However this is not always possible. In such cases, we record cases from partners, media and civil society that are reasonable and prima facie credible.

PWA = Person(s) with Albinism
PFI = Press Freedom Index for 2019 (180 countries surveyed) 
.
Source: Reporters Without Borders (RSF)

Benin, 18 reports: (PFI 96 of 180) 5 killings / 5 survivors / 7 missing / 1 grave robbery Most recent survivor: On August 4, 2017, a 13 year old girl with albinism by the name of Anna Gnanhwui narrowly escaped abduction and was found unhurt the following day in Dogbo in the south west of Benin. According to Anna’s cousine, Mr. Valentin GOSSA, she was just leaving the marketplace with one of her sisters and was in the neighbourhood of Dogbo Zaphi public primary school when the kidnappers approached frightening Anna’s sister away and abducting Anna in a black Ford Focus with the lisence numbre AY 4078. The police were immediately alerted and launched a large patrol of the surrounding area. Under intense pressure, the kidnappers were forced to release Anna in a bush where she spent the night. The following morning she found help and was reunited with her family at the Dobgo’s Police station with the General Director of the National Police. All 3 suspects who committed the abduction are Beninese from Dogbo and have been arrested by Commander CIE APLAHOUE and his team and will be presented to a public prosecutor. (Sources: UTSS was informed by the following 2 sources – Houetehou C. Franck HOUNSA; Founder and President; Connexion Worldwide NGO; O1 BP 4166 Cotonou; Tél +229 97895528; Benin Republic / Mr. AKPO Firmin; NGO: VALEUR ALBINOS; Contact:00229 95 54 75 13; Site internet: www.valeur-albinos.org; Republic of Benin)

Most recent killing: On July 13, 2013, a 20 year old man with albinism known as Francois (HOUANOU Mahouto François) was deceived, drugged, kidnapped, killed and mutilated in his homeland of Benin. François lived in the community of Lalo in south-western Benin, where he was learning to become a nurse in one of the hospitals at Lalo Centre. Francois had a cousin named Pascal (HLEKPE Pascal) who lived in Koudjon Centre, a small village near Lalo. Both boys had grown up together in the same hamlet of Ouinsouhoué. On that fateful day, Pascal approached his cousin with albinism in order to deceive him, saying that he’d found a high paying job for him in downtown Cotonou, and that the boss wanted to meet right away. François showed no hesitation and after a 3 hour ride, they went to wait for the so-called boss in a bar. Here Francois was drugged and kidnapped to Porto-Novo, the country’s capital city, where he was killed, and parts of his body removed. When Pascal returned home to Lalo alone, everyone started asking for François. Pascal kept insisting that he had not traveled anywhere with François. Since many had seen them travelling together, people started threatening him to tell the truth. In an attempt to conceal the truth and silence the family, he decided to consult various witchdoctors to make him amulets. Finally he and his three accomplices went to consult one of the visionaries of the Celestial Churches of Christ. He told him the whole story and begged him to mystically silence everyone about the murder in exchange for a lot of money. The visionary left his house briefly and called the police, who arrived quickly. The criminals tried to escape but the police shot one of them and all four were arrested and placed in custody. Of the four, one was released when it was discovered that he was the younger brother to one of the criminals and had nothing to do with the murder. The other three were placed in the prison in Lokossa and are serving their sentences. (Source: Sent to UTSS March 7, 2018, by Mr. Firmin Akpo, NGO Valeur Albinos, Benin; Tel: +229 95 54 75 13/ 96 93 96 05; E-mail: valeuralbinos.ong@gmail.com; Site:www.valeur-albinos.org)

Most recent missing: On March 23, 2019, a 45-year-old man with albinism by the name of Allavo Arnaud went missing in the city of Abomey, Zou Department, Benin. The victim was a well-known joiner (carpenter) who lived in the Allavo’s home and had his joinery business opposite the DAH TAMADAHO. Much to the dismay of his family, the victim’s younger brother may have been involved in his disappearance. According to a cousin, Arnaud had some work to do for an old man who had called him in the morning of Saturday, March 23, indicating that the door locks had been purchased and that he should come to make the repairs. Arnaud has not been heard from since. The old man was questioned over the disappearance but denies that Arnaud met with him that day. Franck Hounsa, founder and chairperson of Beninese Albinism NGO has raised the alert, asking anyone who has any suspicions about Allavo’s destination that day to inform the police or the nearest local authority. He concluded by saying: “I pray we find Arnaud unharmed for the sake of his family and the nation. I appeal parents to look after their children with albinism. I also warn adults with albinism against going unaccompanied to a meeting even if they know the person who invites them to that meeting.” (Source: UTSS received this attack report on March 25, 2019, from Franck Hounsa, founder and chairperson of Beninese Albinism NGO Divine Connexion Worldwide; Email: houetehou@yahoo.fr; Tel./ WhatsApp: +229-97 89 55 28. This attack was confirmed on March 31, 2019, by Firmin AKPO from NGO Valeur Albinos in BENIN; Email address: valeuralbinos.ong@gmail; Website: www.valeur-albinos.org; Tel : +229- 97 64 30 19 / +229-96 02 28 96 )

Most recent grave robbery: In September of 2018, a 50-year-old woman with albinism by the name of Dame Clémentine Kantchemé ends up dying of skin cancer after which her lifeless body was decapitated by a family member at her burial in the woods near her family home in the community of Allada, Atlantique Department, Benin. Over the span of multiple unknown dates throughout the course of her life, the deceased had survived numerous abduction attempts and other inhumane cruelties at the hands of her family. Dame Clémentine had always been disowned by her father’s family who compared her to a white monster along with many other punishing psychological abuses. She never did manage to move past these cruelties and build a family of her own. At one-point she was very sick with wounds all over her body and finally decided to seek assistance from her mother’s younger sister, hoping for a more supportive response. Tragically, and to her great surprise, she was ill-treated by her aunt as well, being forced to cook despite her poor vision and deteriorating health. One day while cooking, a fire broke out in the kitchen. Because she only had sight in one eye which suffered from low vision, she didn’t immediately notice the fire and was nearly burnt alive. Thankfully she was rescued by some neighbours. To make life worse, her aunt colluded with a witchdoctor to get rid of her for good. The aunt told Dame Clementine that she knew of a witchdoctor who could heal her but that the treatment consisted of pouring boiled water over the left side of her face. This was pure torture for Dame Clémentine who screamed for help while being overpowered by the perpetrators. She lost half of her left ear during this so-called “cure” ritual, and the skin on her face had all but disappeared and became infested with maggots. Upon arrival at hospital the doctors denounced the so-called treatment, describing it as Machiavellian. In September of 2018, Dame Clémentine Kantchemé finally died of skin cancer. Her body was immediately apprehended by the family who refused to give her a decent funeral, saying that she did not deserve a coffin or a grave in a cemetery. One of the Kantchemé family members publicly declared that he needed her head because, since childhood she had been very lucky, having escaped their many attempted kidnappings. Nestor, one of the deceased cousins, insisted on participating in the burial in the bush in ALLADA. Following the funeral, Nestor told police that the body’s head had been removed before it was buried. The police warned him against pushing the case further for fear that he may be killed by the family. They went on to tell Nestor that this was a family matter and that there was no need to “make noise” about the body parts that had been removed since the victim was already dead. (Source: Report sent to UTSS by Firmin AKPO from NGO Valeur Albinos in BENIN on March 31, 2019; Email address: valeuralbinos.ong@gmail; Website: www.valeur-albinos.org; Tel : +229- 97 64 30 19 / +229-96 02 28 96).

Botswana, 3 reports: (PFI 44 of 180) 3 survivors
Survivor account: In September of 1998
, a 27 year old woman with albinism by the name of Ofentse Serurubele narrowly escaped a second plot against her life. The incident took place at Kanye, her native village in Southern Botswana. Although Serurubele was a primary school teacher in the city of Jwaneng, Botswana, she was pregnant and staying in her native village at the time. On this near fateful day, her young brother encountered three guys in the village night club who knew Serurubele. They offered him some beer to get him drunk, hoping to manipulate him into joining their murder plot against his sister. Fortunately he sensed something was wrong and secretly managed to replace the beer with water while pretending to be drunk. The guys asked him: “Where is your sister, the albino teacher?” “Your sister could actually make the deal: She is albino and pregnant!” “We want her flesh…!” Seururubele’s brother lied, telling them she was teaching in Jwanenge City but would be home for the weekend and that they could find her then. When he got home from the club that evening, Serurubele’s brother told her everything and warned her to leave immediately to Jwaneng city for her safety. After that incident, Serrurubele stayed in the city for a long time. (Source: Personal interview by UTSS on January 22, 2014 with Mrs. Ofentse Serurubele, founder & chair of PWA Tshimologo Association Botswana, mobile number +267-72-962-779; Botswana Gazette, January 16, 2014, Understanding Albinism by Kago Komane,http://www.gazettebw.com/?p=6718 )

Burkina Faso, 9 reports: (PFI 36 of 180) 2 killing / 6 survivors / 1 asylum
Most recent killing: On August 14, 2012 
a 12 year old boy with albinism was killed in Gaoua, Burkina Faso. Witnesses report that the body was found with his head and genitals removed. (source: “L’Express du Faso” on Wednesday, August 15, 2012).

Other killing account (date unknown): A 16 year old person with albinism (PWA) was allegedly murdered by François Compaore, brother of Burkina Faso’s president at that time. It is believed that the killing was related to human sacrifice. In the newspaper “L’Indépendant”, a former soldier by the name of Delma Daogo, who was in active service to Compaore at that time, gave an interview where he explained: François Compaoré (the president’s brother) sent David Ouedraogo (his driver) to Ouagadougou Central Mosque, a place where PWA congregate to appeal for money, in order to bring one of them to him so that he could make a sacrifice. David brought a 16 year old PWA for the alleged purpose of making prayers in the compound of François Compaoré. The driver was then given 50.000F (about 100 US dollars) and asked to go home. Once at his home, David realized he had forgotten his wallet and returned to pick it up. When he arrived, he saw that they had killed the PWA and cut him into pieces. (Source: l’Indépendant – link to article no longer active – This newspaper was founded by the late journalist, Mr. Norbert Zongo who was allegedly assassinated by President Blaise Compaore’s regime due, in part, to the publication of this article about a PWA murder.)

Most recent abduction: On April 18th, 2012, Dr. Pius Kamau, an American physician
originally from Kenya, was an eye witness at the Nairobi airport to three aggressive African men being allowed to transport a young boy with albinism out of the country without a passport. He said the men had come from Tanzania and were headed to Ouagadougou, in Burkina Faso and that they used loud, offensive language as the airline attendant asked for the missing passport — they had three passports and none for the child. Dr. Kamau is now convinced that the three-year-old boy with albinism is no longer a baby headed to a loving family, but a sacrifice at some altar of a cruel witchcraft ceremony. (Source: HUFF POST: IMPACT – The BLOG; Three Year Old Albino – Victim of Witchcraft Sacrifice by Pius Kamau, Posted: 05/01/2012 at 4:00 pm)

Burundi, 38 reports: (PFI 159 of 180) 21 killings, 13 survivors, 4 grave robbery.
Most recent killing: On March 24, 2016, a four year-old girl with albinism by the name of Devote Ntiharirizwa was kidnapped from her home by unidentified men armed with machetes at around midnight, in colline Musemo, comune Mishiha, province Cankuzo, Burundi, not far from the Tanzanian border. On March 29, 2016, OHCHR was informed by police sources that the body parts of the little girl were found in a jerry-can and that three men were arrested in relation to the case. One of them had already been involved in the killing of PWA in 2008 and sentenced to a life sentence. OHCHR is following up to find out why he was released. (Source: Anonyms).

Second most recent killing: On February 17, 2016, at around 1:30 AM, a 4 year old girl with albinism by the name of Cimpaye was murdered in the Province of Kirundo, commune of Busoni, in the area of Muterwa, Hill of Irenga in Northern Burundi. She was sleeping when a gang of criminals armed with machetes burst into the home of her parents, Mr. Nyabenda Pascal and his wife Modeste Rwasa. Among the intruders was a man wearing a military shirt of the National Defence Force. Three of the gang members broke into the house to abduct little Cimpaye. About 30 meters from the house they killed her, chopping off her arms and taking them. Cimpaye’s parents wanted to bury their daughter in their yard but have been denied since they do not own the premises. Burundi’s PWA association, APOB, have been in touch with the local authority on this matter. The director assured them she would send her staff in charge of Social Affairs along with the chief of the area to discuss the issue of the victim’s burial. APOB officials also expressed deep concern about the safety of the remaining PWA in the commune of Busoni since it’s the place with the highest number of PWA in the province of Kirundo. In October of 2015 another child with albinism narrowly escaped murder in the same commune. (Source: Report sent to UTSS on February 17, 2016, by Moise Nkengurutse, legal representative of the organization for PWA in Burundi – OPAB (Organisation des Personnes Albinos du Burundi); Address: Q. Mushasha, Sous Q. Nyabisindu, Transversal IV, No 18, Gitega_Burundi, BP: 179, Gitega; Telephone: +25779323225 +25775401739; E mail: opa.burundi@yahoo.com)

Most recent survivor: On October 6, 2015, a 10 year old girl with albinism by the name of Alice Girukwishaka miraculously survived a brutal attack at her home in Busoni town, in the province of Kirundo, in MUyange-Gisozi, Northern Burundi. Men armed with machetes attacked the family of Gerard NKUNZIMANA & NIZIGIYIMANA who were accommodating Alice. Fortunately neighbours managed to intervene and help bring a premature end to the attack. Little Alice sustained injuries to the head and shoulder and underwent intensive treatment at Kanyinya Hospital in Kirundo. The criminals escaped before being identified. (Source: Moise Nkengurutse, Legal Representative of the of Burundi albinism association – OPAB; Address: Q. Mushasha, Sous Q. Nyabisindu, Transversal IV, No 18, Gitega_Burundi, BP: 179, Gitega; Tel: +257-79323225 / +257-75401739; E mail: opa.burundi@yahoo.com)

Second most recent survivor: On March 20, 2015, a 28year old man with albinism by the name of Ndagijimana Debok was attacked with a machete and his left leg severely injured, in the town of Gihanga, North western province of Bubanza in Burundi. As presidential elections approach in Burundi, the safety of PWA remains a matter of concern. The victim received treatment in a local hospital. Ndagijimana’s neighbour is suspected to be the perpetrator of this attack and investigations are underway. (Source: Account provided on March 28, 2015, by Mr Pascal Matabishi, member of Burundi’s PWA association – ASF – email: pascaloni@icloud.com; tel: +257-75 97 14 98).

Graver robbery: In August of 2012, the grave of a woman with albinism by the name of Tabu was violated by unidentified criminals and her head was stolen. Eight months earlier, Tabu had succumbed to an extended and tragic battle with skin cancer and was buried in the cemetery of the Bugarama area, in the town of Muramvya in the province of Muramvya. Her son Venuste, also a PWA, was informed of his mother’s exhumed body and immediately reported it to the leaders of the Burundian PWA Association called “Albinos Sans Frontieres”. (Source: ASF – Burundi PWA Association)

Cameroon, 11 report: (PFI 131 of 180) 2 killings, 2 survivor, 6 asylum, 1 grave robbery Most recent killing account: In August of 2009, the foot of a young girl with albinism whose Identity remains undisclosed was found in a garbage can in Douala, the capital of the region of Littoral, Cameroon. She reportedly worked in a Snack Bar in that area. Her foot was kept in the morgue of the Laquintane Hospital in Douala. (Source: Information provided to UTSS on July 03, 2013 by Kakmeni Wembou Raphael, the leader of Cameronn Association for the Promotion of Albino CAPA).

Most recent survivor account: In 2013 a mother and her infant with albinism began the process of seeking asylum in France because she feared for the life of her child in Cameroon where members of her community attempted to kill the baby for ritual purposes during local elections. (Source: Iinterview on June 12, 2014, between UTSS and Genespoir, France’s major PWA group who were strongly involved in this case.)

Most recent asylum account: On December 23, 2015, a man with albinism by the name Mr. Christian Eric Tchidjo from Cameroon was granted refugee status in UK. (Source: Iinterviews with UTSS).

Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), 70 reports: (PFI 154 of 180) 17 killings / 35 survivors / 1 missing / 10 grave robberies / 7 asylums
Most recent killing: On July 17, 2017
, an infant with albinism was thrown into a cesspit (often used as a toilet in rural Africa) by the husband of the childs mother who was absence at the time of this henious act. The incident took place in Maazi, territory of Shabunda in the province of South-Kivu, in DRC. The baby died and the murderer has since enrolled in an armed group called Raiya Mutomboki. (Source: Report sent to UTSS on July 21, 2017, by an albinism group called Programme d’intégration pour la protection de l’humanité (Piph-ASBL); Coordinator: Mr. LUNGELE ITEBO Samuel; Email address :piphasblrdc@gmail.com; Tel. + 243-9749380000, + 243-974938002 + 243-993714382; Physical address: MWENGA, KALOLE in South-Kivu, DRC).

Most recent survivor: This report counts as 2 attacks: In 2017 and again in January of 2018 a 63 year old man with albinism by the name of Jean- Louis Gbangbi Ngbonza escaped 2 attempted kidnappings in his hometown of Alibuku located along the road of Buta about 37 KM from Kisangani in the province of Tshopo, DRC. In an interview with Dr. Gaylord Inena Wa Inena, Jean- Louis said; “I faced two attempted kidnappings. The first time was last year in 2017, some people plotted to kidnap me, but thankfully a local security company managed to rescue me. The second time was in January of this year (2018), a man who had newly settled in my hometown and worked as a traditional gun maker planned to abduct me. He got married to a local woman. His wife informed me that her husband was plotting to kidnap me at my workplace and take me somewhere. He didn’t succeed. At that time, I worked as a teacher and director in a local school. The guy came here (Kisangani) from Kindu, province of Maniema. Apparently, he was sent by some people to kidnap PWAs in DRC and take them to Tanzania. I informed the police who investigated his suspicious activities. It was found that he was clandestinely making and supplying guns to a local gang of rebels called Nzambe Lumumba. He ran away when he noticed he was going to be arrested.” The victim has since relocated for safety reasons. (Source: On July 30, 2018, UTSS received a video interview recorded and sent by Dr. Gaylord Inena Wa Inena, CEO and Founder of an NGO called CORBETTA in Kisangani, province of Tshopo, DRC; Email: gaylordinena@gmail.com; Cellphone/ WhatsApp: +243-824-155-808).

Most recent missing: On February 16, 2015, a two year boy with albinism was abducted in Nyantende, in the territory of Kabare, province of South Kivu, DRC. A journalist for the Congolese Press Agency reported that early in second week of September, 2015, a trafficker of children with albinism was arrested for this crime by the police in Kamanyola in the territory of Walungu. The child’s father and paternal uncle explained that the criminal, along with his accomplice and their neighbours, broke into their house while the parents were away, enticing the boy with sweets and wrapping him in a bag. The victim’s older brother, age 7, said the kidnappers bought him cookies to gain his favour in order to commit their heinous crime. They have since vanished with the boy. One of the arrested suspects declared that it was his accomplice who wrapped the boy in the bag. The latter is now in the hands of police. (Source: Congolese Press Agency – ACP [Agence Congolaise de Presse]; An albino child trafficker arrested in Kamanyola; September 10, 2015, http://acpcongo.com/acp/un-trafiquant-denfants-albinos-arrete-a-kamanyola/).

Most recent grave desecrationIn the early hours of March 25, 2019, the grave of a man with albinism by the name of Mr. Ghislain, who had died a month and a half earlier, was vandalized at his family plot in the ward of CIRIRI, in the community of BAGIRA, BUKAVU District, SOUTH KIVU Province, DRC. The remains of the deceased were exhumed, dismembered and body parts stolen. A local resident by the name of Romain CIRHUZA said it’s not the first time that the grave of a PWA has been tampered with, and body parts taken in the area of BUKAVU. It is alleged that these acts are committed for witchcraft purposes. Condemnation of the act by the Urban Security Council which was presided over by the mayor of BUKAVU, Méschac Bilubi Ulengabo, was followed by the albinism group called Association pour la promotion intégrale des albinos. (Source: RTNK; Bukavu: Desecration of the grave of a person living with albinism in Ciriri, civil society demands investigations; March 26, 2019;http://rtnk.info/bukavula-tombe-dune-personne-vivant-albinisme-profanee-a-ciriri/ and KIVUPRESS.CD; South Kivu: The grave of an albino was desecrated in Bukavu; March 30th, 2019; https://www.kivupress.info/9456-sud-kivu-la-tombe-dun-albinos-a-ete-profanee-a-bukavu/).

Most recent asylum: During the first week of June, 2015, legal history was made in Ireland when a man with albinism from DRC who wishes to remain anonymous was granted secured permanent residency through a non-asylum process. He suffered severe persecution and untreated skin cancer in his native country. (Source: UTSS was informed via a personal contact from his sister who is now a resident of Canada.)

Egypt, 1 report(PFI 163 of 180) 1 asylum – September 16, 2011
On Friday, September 16, 2011, Hazem Abd Elkade, a 28 year old man with albinism from Egypt told journalist Sophie Bond about his life in Egypt and his new found asylum in New Zealand. He contrasted the profound discrimination facing people with albinism in Egypt with the amazing and equal opportunities he has found in New Zealand. Hazem’s lawyer says: “He was seriously maltreated at multiple levels including such things as deliberate cigarette burns from supposed educators…. The hostility toward him was serious at best because of his Albinism. He has now been able to both marry and continue his studies. He is one of the nicest and most considerate people I have met in a long time and doing very well.” Hazem says; “I want to be a professor in the university. The first time I ever got a salary was here in New Zealand. I can support myself and my research. I don’t want to go back to Egypt, not even for a visit.” (SOURCE: The Aucklander (online) – New home for Hazem, By Sophie Bond, Friday 16 September 2011, http://m.nzherald.co.nz/aucklander/news/article.cfmc_id=1503378&objectid=11040952 ; Hazem’s lawyer Allen Little QSM,JP).

Ghana, 3 report: (PFI 27 of 180) 1 killing / 2 survivors
Most recent killing: On February 17, 2015
, the lifeless body of a 35 year old man with albinism by the name of Kofi Yeboah aka Agbleyevu was found at the entrance of Pastor Emmanuel Agbeze’s residence in Owoakra, Boketey, under Amanase in the eastern region of Ghana. According to the pastor’s wife, Gifty Asare, her husband ran off shortly after the death of Kofi and she has not heard from him since. Unfortunately the police have not been responsive to crimes committed in this area and allowed Pastor Agbeze to escape without questioning. Since that time however, police commander Spt. Yahaya of Suhum police station announced that because of the public interest whipped up by media related to the death of Kofi Yeboah, the homicide unit at police headquarters in Accra had taken over the investigation. (Source: Newton Kwamla Katseku, Executive Director of the Ghana Association of Persons with Albinism – GAPA, June 6 & July 24, 2015; info@gapaghana.org / gapa4all@gmail.com / www.gapaghana.org and Suhum police report number 112967).

Most recent survivor: On February 27, 2010, a man with albinism by the name of Newton Kwamlia Katseku, who is also the Executive Director of the Ghana Association of Persons with Albinism (GAPA), narrowly escaped death. This event took place while attending a funeral in the town of Akwamufie, a community along the Volta Lake near the Adomi bridge on Atimpoku Ho road in the eastern region of Ghana. Early on during the funeral ceremonies Newton was approached by 4 different parties urgently warning him to leave or go into hiding. When he asked why, they informed him that it is against local tradition to tolerate or accept people with albinism in the vicinity. Newton spent close to nine hours hiding in a car as the funeral and other rites were performed before he was able to leave. He later reported the incident to several authorities but has never received a reply. (Source: Newton Kwamla Katseku, Executive Director of the Ghana Association of Persons with Albinism – GAPA, June 6 & July 24, 2015; info@gapaghana.org / gapa4all@gmail.com / www.gapaghana.org).

Second most recent survivor: On July 16, 2009, in the country of Ghana, a 2 year old boy with albinism (unnamed) was kidnapped by an 18 year old woman named Akua Linda. A week later on July 22, 2009 Linda was apprehended and confessed that a man named Biyanka sent her to feign playing with the boy so that she could steal him. Linda continued that Biyanka took the boy to Asuoyeboah, another Kumasi suburb, after which he was taken to an unknown destination. Akua Linda, according to the Police Capo, noted further that Biyanka returned the boy to her yesterday morning, explaining that what he intended to use the boy for could not work out as expected. Linda was therefore on her way to return the child to his mother when someone saw them at the Kejetia Bus Terminal in Kumasi, Ghana, and raised the alarm leading to her apprehension. Investigations continue. (Source: Daily Guide posted by Ghana Pundit; Thursday, July 23, 2009, “Girl Arrested for Stealing Albino” http://ghanapundit.blogspot.ca/2009/07/girl- arrested-for-stealing-albino.html )

Guinea, 16 reports: (PFI 107 of 180) 5 killings / 6 survivors / 5 asylum & other refuge cases

2 Most recent killings: 1st Killing: On a Sunday in September of 2010, at the area of
La Carrière, in the town of Matam, district of Conakry, the body of a PWA was found with the eyes missing— very likely removed with a knife. According to our source, the unnamed PWA used to wander daily in that area with some friends, looking for their daily bread. Their life is made up of begging at the big market of Matam’s main station and on the streets of the Capital City. One morning his lifeless body was found laying on the sidewalk. 2nd Killing: At very much the same time in 2010, at the Matoto Market, in the town of Matoto, another PWA was killed in some unexplained circumstances. His body was found completely dismembered; the attackers having made off with many of the body parts.
These two PWA lifeless bodies have made the headlines of all local media including the National Broadcaster RTG. Many Websites and Private Radios have used these murders in their headlines. But unfortunately, no investigation has been considered as if PWAs have no rights. This silence and impunity make fragile the life of PWA in the republic of Guinea and everywhere in Africa.

Most recent survivor account: On May 17, 2017, a four year old girl with albinism by the
name of Fatoumata Camara narrowly escaped a ritual tragedy after being rescued from 4 men who had abducted her in the country village of Damankania, in the Sinanya district of Yabara, Guinea. The suspected traffickers kidnapped little Fatoumata in front of her mother at their home. Her father Salif Camara explains: “a young man got out of a vehicle that was parked in front of my compound and snatched our daughter. My wife who was on the scene asked the kidnappers where they were taking her. Without answering they drove off with little Fatoumata. My wife shouted for a motorbike taxi to chase the kidnappers. I immediately alerted the Commander of the Gendarmerie (police) who deployed his team and managed to capture the vehicle. Of the 4 assailants, 2 succeeded in escaping and the other two were arrested.” Accused of trafficking a person with albinism, a man by the name of Mohamed Conté and a woman named Aissata Bangoura were arrested on May 17, 2017, by the Services of the Territorial Gendarmerie (Police) of Kindia. When qquestioned, the abductor named Mohamed Conté admitted that he was a witchdoctor who came to visit another older witchdoctor known as Doubayadi who was also the father of his colleague Aissata Bangoura. (Source: GUINEENEWS.ORG – Kindia: two suspected albino traffickers arrested by gendarmerie; By Mamady Mara; May 24, 2017; https://guineenews.org/kindia- deux-presumes-trafiquants-dalbinos-arretes-gendarmerie/; UTSS partner in Guinea – Mr. Moussa Bangoura, the founder of the local PWA group Confédération nationale des albinos de Guinée (CNAG); Friday May 26, 2017)

Most recent asylum / refuge case: On Thursday, September 20, 2018, a woman with albinism in her mid-thirties from Guinea was granted subsidiary protection in France. The woman first came to France on a student visa which was denied renewal some years ago. Faced with the risk of deportation, she has now been granted a subsidiary protection due to her albinism. (Source: On Sunday, September 30, 2018, a UTSS representative talked directly via telephone to the Guinean woman who was granted subsidiary protection in France.)

Ivory Coast, 30 reports: (PFI 71 of 180) 9 killings / 13 survivors / 4 missing / 2 asylums / 2 abandoned

Most recent survivor: In late June of 2017, a woman with albinism had her 15 month old infant, who did not have albinsm by the name of Collette Ama Koffi, kidnapped from their home in Ivory Coast by a pigmented woman from Benin. The police in Arrah, in the east of the country, found the Beninese woman named Nadège Dassia after she had stolen the child. After four years of trying to give birth to her own child, the abductor passed herself off as a soap seller which easily enabled her to enter the bedroom of the absent mother and snatch the baby. After fleeing the house with the infant in a taxi heading towards KOTOBI ( in east-central of Cote d’ivoire, subprefecture of Arrah), the police were allerted and managed to catch the pair, arrest the kidnapper, rescue the infant and reunite the mother with her child. (Source: koaci.com – Cote d’Ivoire: Beninese woman steals baby from Ivorian mother and gets arrested;

Most recent killing: On June 30, 2017, the lifeless body of a 3-year-old boy with albinism by the name of Sidibe Oumarou was found in a 1 meter deep abandoned well situated behind the town hall of Kani, in the ward of Damasso, in the north west of Ivory Coast. According to first testimonies gathered by Mamidou Coulibaly, this case was not an accident and it appeared that the boy was tragically murdered for ritual purposes and his body thrown in the abandoned well. (Sources: On July 4, 2017, France’s Major PWA group Genespoir published this case on their FaceBook page; http://aip.ci/cote-divoire-le-corps-dun- petit-albinos-retrouve-dans-un-puits-a-kani/; from Benedict Louyer, deputy chairperson, email address genespoir@wanadoo.fr; / also UTSS was in contact with Mamidou Coulibaly, founder and chairperson of the NGO BEDACI, Email: ongbedaci@gmail.com; ongbedaci@yahoo.fr; Phone:+225-05-42-07-39 / +225- 07-67-43-26) Thursday, June 22, 2017; http://koaci.com/m/cote-divoire-dans-limpossibilite-denfanter-beninoise-vole- bebe-dune-maman-ivoirienne-fait-arreter-dans-fuite-110473-i.html).

Asylum account: Julienne is a 29-year old woman with albinism and a mother of a 13-year old daughter and an 8-year old son who, just four days after narrowly escaping a second attack due to her albinism, fled her native Côte d’Ivoire on August 13, 2012 to Tunisia. She was hoping to find a better life in another African country. Shortly after her arrival in Tunisia she obtained refugee status from the UNHCR. Despite her refugee status in Tunisia, Julienne’s life has not improved as much as she had hoped, summarizing her experience by saying: “Here, people slap me, insult me and mock me. I don’t have a job and I am unable to become integrated”. (Source: French Daily Paper “Le Monde” published on May 20, 2013; http://emiliennemalfatto.blog.lemonde.fr/2013/05/20/julienne-29-ans-refugiee-dermatologique/)

Kenya, 13 reports: (PFI 100 of 180) 5 killings / 8 survivors

Most recent killing: On September 20, 2015, a 56 year old man with albinism by the name of Enock Jamenya succumbed to injuries from a brutal machete attack and died. Ten days earlier on September 10, 2015, it was reported that Enock survived a ritual attack by three men armed with pangas at his home in Gavudunyi village, Hamisi Subcounty, Vihiga county, Kenya. “When I told them I did not have any money, they asked for my ear or hand to sell to Tanzania,” he said. A struggle ensued and the attackers sliced his left ear, arm, neck and fingers and left him unconscious. His brother Nickson Lugadiru, also with albinism, said Enock was found in that state by his son, who called for help. Lugadiru took his brother to Hamisi Subcounty Hospital, where he was referred to Vihiga. Enock was operated on for three hours after which medics said he was out of danger. The attack has rekindled concerns over the security of people with albinism ahead of Tanzania’s October elections. “The attackers wanted my brother’s body parts to sell to Tanzania,” said Lugadiru who is one of four PWA in their family. The national coordinator of Kenya’s Albinism Empowerment Network, Martin Wanyonyi, visited Enock at the hospital, condemned the attack and said if the criminals are not apprehended within 48 hours, his network would take to the streets in protest. (Source: theSTAR; Hamisi albino attacked for his body parts; by JOSEPH JAMENYA; September 14, 2015; http://www.the-star.co.ke/news/hamisi-albino-attacked-his-body-parts) / The Telegraph; Kenya’s albinos moved away from Tanzania border amid witch doctor threat; By Aislinn Laing; September 24, 2015; http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/kenya/11885641/Kenyans-albinos-moved-away-from-Tanzania-border-amid-witchdoctor-threat.html)

Most recent survivor: On Friday, March 15, 2013, a 7 year old boy with albinism in Embu, Kenya managed to escape relatives who tried to sell him for ritual purposes. He was kidnapped by his uncle together with other relatives who attempted to take off to an unknown destination where they were to meet the buyers. The boy said that the kidnappers threw him out of the window of a moving vehicle when he screamed. (Source: “7 Year Old Escapes Deathly Ritual,” Citizen News, March 15, 2013, acccessed June 26, 2013, http://www.citizennews.co.ke/news/2012/local/item/8667-7-year-old-escapes-deathly-ritual).

Lesotho, 1 report: (PFI 78 of 180)1 killing
In October of 2015 
a 16 year old girl with albinism by the name of Thaba-Tseka was mutilated in what is suspected to be a case of ritual killing in the country of Lesotho, a country encircled by South Africa. According to police spokesperson, Senior Inspector Clifford Molefe, a woman from the victim’s district arrested in connection with the murder was assisting with investigations. Thaba-Tseka met the suspect at an initiation school where they were both initiates. He declined to disclose more details, saying it would compromise investigations. He went on to say; “We are not in a position to disclose whether the crime was committed as a result of superstitious beliefs or not. All I can say is investigations are ongoing…Once the investigations have been completed, the case will be brought before court and the offenders will face the wrath of the law.” (Source: Sunday EXPRESS: Albino girl mutilated in suspected ritual murder; November 22, 2015; By Pascalinah Kabi; http://sundayexpress.co.ls/albino-girl-mutilated- in-suspected-ritual-murder/).

Madagascar, 1 report: (PFI 54 of 180) 1 killing
On October 17, 2016, 
in the early hours of the morning the lifeless body of an about 28-year-old woman with albinism was found in Bezaha in the district of Betioky, South West Madagascar. She was the victim of a brutal attack leaving her naked body disfigured and her eyes stolen. According to locals, the robbery of PWA’s eyes has reportedly been on the increase as another way to make easy money, a practice that is gradually taking root among the bandits in the region. The residents do not know where to go at the moment. (Source: On January 23, 2017, UTSS discovered this article published by the Madagascar Matin Newspaper; http://www.matin.mg/?p=42939; The publication date is not clear in this article. Translation is provided by UTSS representative, Amadou Diallo.).

*Malawi, 49 reports(PFI 68 of 18017 killings, 22 survivors, 5 missing, 5 grave robberies NOTE: (3 attack in 2019 / 3 attacks in 2018 / 9 attacks in 2017 / 14 attacks in 2016 / 13 attacks in 2015)

*In Malawi more cases have been reported. In 2017, 102 cases were reported by the UN Independent Expert on albinism in the report of her official visit to Malawi. See UN document number: A/HRC/34/59/Add.1 (March 2017). A few months later, in October 2017, the association of persons with albinism in Malawi reported 122 cases (Source: Malawi News Agency (MANA); Lack of finances stalls 122 cases of people with albinism; Wednesday, Oct 25, 2017; http://www.maravipost.com/lack-finances-stalls-122-cases-people-albinism/). Under The Same Sun (UTSS) officially records cases after it has received a sufficient source and data: name of victim, type of attack, date, location, etc. Without access to such detail, UTSS is unable to enter these cases into its records for now; but recognizes that these reports are probably credible due to their sources.

Most recent killing: On December 31, 2018, a 54 year old man with albinism by the name of Yassin Kwenda Phiri was hacked to death at about10:00 PM on New Year’s Eve. This barbaric act took place in front of his 9 year old son after the criminals dragged Yassin out of the bed they were both sleeping in, took him about 20 meters outside of the house, chopped off both arms and fled into the dark with them. Yassin’s son watched his father bleed to death just outside their home in the Kande Trading Center of Nkhata Bay in the Northern Region of Malawi. On January 1, 2019 Police spokesperson Peter Kalaya of Nkhata Bay confirmed the victim’s identity and said Yassin worked as a hospital attendant at the Kande Health Centre. “We have launched a manhunt and we will apprehend the criminals,” he said. On January 2, 2019 Malawi Police Inspector General Rodney Jose told reporters that they were looking for two suspects. A news report on January 7, 2019 said Malawi Police Services had arrested four suspects linked to the murder of Yasin Phiri. (Source: Myasa Times: Another albino killed in Malawi: Kwenda brutally murdered in presence of son, 7; January 1, 2019; By Tiwonge Kumwenda; https://www.nyasatimes.com/another-albino-killed-in-malawi-kwenda-brutally-murdered-in-presence-of- son-7/ ; AIH News:“We must exhume and burry all victims of albino-attacks at State House” Charles Kajoloweka; January 2, 2019; http://www.aihnews.com/we-must-exhume-and-burry-all-victims-of-albino- attacks-at-state-house-charles-kajoloweka/ ; VOA News: Malawi’s Albinos Begin 2019 With Fear of Renewed Attacks; January 03, 2019; By Lameck Masina; https://www.voanews.com/a/malawi-s-albinos- begin-new-year-with-fear-of-renewed-attacks/4727109.html; The African Exponent: U.N. Condemns the Ritual Killings of Albinos in Malawi; https://www.africanexponent.com/post/9616-10000-albinos-in- malawi-face-extinction; January 7, 2019; By Sebastiane Ebatamehi)

Most recent survivor: On the night of February 25, 2019, there was a failed abduction attempt of a 20 month old baby girl with albinism by the name of Noriah Mhango in the Northern Region, Rumphi District of Malawi. While Rumphi police were not available for comment at the time, Overtone Kondowe, president of the Association of Persons with Albinism in Malawi (APAM), said that “a person had wanted to abduct young Noriah from her parents’ house but the assailant failed after dogs’ barking woke up the community. He [the assailant] wanted to use the window, but after sensing danger, he ran away”. Kondowe also noted that this failed abduction occurred just two kilometres from where an abduction occurred on January 22, 2019, where 18 month of Eunice Nkhonjera was kidnapped from her home and is still missing. (SOURCE: Nyasa Times – Another albino abduction attempt in Rumphi: Apam renews calls ‘to leave Malawi’ for asylum abroad; February 26, 2019; By Pius Nyondo; https://www.nyasatimes.com/another-albino-abduction-attempt-in-rumphi-apam-renews-calls-to-leave- malawi-for-asylum-abroad/)

Most recent missing: On February 13, 2019, a 14-year-old boy with albinism by the name of Goodson Makanjira was abducted in the early hours of Wednesday in the chief Chilikumwendo area, Dedza District, in the Central Region of Malawi. According to his family, six masked men broke into their home while they were sleeping and violently stole Goodson from his bed. One of the family members was slashed when they tried to intervene. Malawi Police spokesperson Kadadzera said “A team of police officers have been discharged to the area; they are on the ground looking for the boy.” Reacting to the attacks, Mr. Overstone Kondowe, President of the Association of People with Albinism in Malawi (APAM) said the government should declare Malawi unsafe for people with albinism. (Source: Malawi24 – 14-year- old boy with albinism abducted in Dedza; February 13, 2019; by Russel Kondowe; https://malawi24.com/2019/02/13/14-year-old-boy-with-albinism-abducted-in-dedza/)

Second most recent missing: On January 22, 2019, a 1 & 1/2 year old little girl with albinism by the name of Unice Nkhonjera was noticed missing at about 4 AM. She had been sleeping with her mother, Loness Nkhonjera (28), in the village of Malongo, Traditional Authority of Wasambo, Karonga District, Malawi. It is believed that little Unice was abducted by unknown kidnappers. (Source: Mr Tengamowa Induna reported it to Mr. Overstone Mkwapatira Kondowe who is the Acting National Director for the Association of Persons with Albinism of Malawi – APAM; Email: okondowe@gmail.com; Mobile: +265 881 132 9028)

Most recent grave robbery: On July 15, 2017, it was discovered that the grave of an elderly woman with albinism by the name of Norwin Nkhonjera was tampered with in an attempt to exhume the body at Mbulunji in the Rumphi District of Malawi. Relatives of the deceased made the discovery on Saturday when they went to the graveyard for a memorial service and reported the matter to police. Rumphi Police Station spokesman Victor Khamisi said that Norwin Nkhonjera had died over 13 years ago on January 10, 2004, and that unknown criminals had recently disturbed the grave but failed to exhume the body. “We went to the grave and established that the body was not exhumed,” said Kamisi and indicated that Police are investigating the matter. (Source: Nyasa Times – Gang attempted to exhume body of albino grave in Rumphi; July 19, 2017; by Judith Moyo: https://www.nyasatimes.com/gang-attempted-exhume- body-albino-grave-rumphi/)

Mali, 17 reports: (PFI 112 of 180) 5 killings / 3 survivors / 2 missing / 7 asylums
Most recent killing: On May 13, 2018, a five year old girl with albinism by the name of Djeneba Diarra was kidnapped from her home in the middle of the night and later found
beheaded in the village of Fana, about 125 Km from Bamako, the capital of Mali. AFP reports that according to police, armed men abducted and beheaded the five-year-old girl with albinism in what was feared to be a ritual murder for supposedly magic body parts. Little Djeneba Diarra “was sleeping in the courtyard with her mother and her sister” when the men snatched her at around 2:00 am on Sunday. The girl’s mother pursued the kidnappers, who scaled a wall with her child, but then turned back to protect her second daughter, also with albinism. “We searched for the little girl everywhere. We found her body beside a mosque, but she had no head,” said a village teacher, Oumar Diakite. Sissoko, the general secretary of the Federation of Associations of Persons with Albinism in West Africa (FAPAO), pointed out the link between crimes against people with albinism and political events, ahead of Mali’s presidential election on July 29. “Every time there are elections, we become prey for people who want to make ritual sacrifices. This is not the first time this has happened in Fana,” he said. “The state needs to take up its responsibilities.” “We demand justice. Her head was taken. This is a ritual crime,” activist Mamadou Sissoko told AFP after going to the scene. The governor of the region of Koulikoro, Colonel Mamary CAMARA, the director general of the national gendarmerie, the Commander of the Legion of gendarmerie were on the crime scene, and went to the morgue to see the body of the beheaded little girl. Traditional authorities have been approached to help appease tensions. (Source: AFP-Outcry in Mali after albino child beheaded in ‘ritual’ murder; May 15, 2018; https://www.yahoo.com/news/outcry-mali-albino-child- beheaded-ritual-murder-110618567.html; and on May 13, 2018, UTSS was contacted by Mamadou Sissoko, the general secretary of the albinism association in Mali, who confirmed the attack; Email address: sissoko3000@yahoo.fr; Tel: +223-73396374/+223-99452599)

Most recent survivor: Early in August 2017 a 13 year old boy with albinism narrowly escaped abduction in Goloninia, located in the Bamako district of Mali. Fortunately for the child, the Salif Keita Foundation for people with albinism in Mali intervened and the perpetrator was arrested. Nantenin Keita, the daughter of Salif Keita, says; “He was released on bail awaiting a date of trial – we don’t know yet. I fear we will never see him again. Our assistant in Bamako underwent a lot of pressure in order to withdraw the complaint, but we didn’t give up. We feared the boy’s family was scared and would withdraw the complaint, but they did not. It’s truly a good step forward.” (Source: Excerpts of an interview with Nantenin Keita (Salif Keita’s daughter) to Françoise WASSERVOGEL, correspondent of the Malian paper “Le Reporter” in France. The article was posted by Genespoir on their Facebook page on November 19, 2017. The article was published on November 15, 2015: http://maliactu.net/mali-ne-touchez-pas-aux- albinos-nantenin-keita-de-la-fondation-salif-keita-fait-le-point/)

Most recent missing: In 2006, the abduction of a baby boy with albinism occurred in Mali. On that fatal night the mother had decided to sleep outside in their yard so that her infant son could enjoy the fresh air. Upon waking the next morning she found that her baby was gone. (Source: An interview of Tierno Diallo on Radio France International on May 20, 2009 called “Invité Afrique” presented by Journalist Christophe Boisbouvier. Tierno is a man with albinism who founded the Malian albinism association in 1993 called SOS Albinos. He was later appointed Minister in Charge of Faith Affairs in 2013 under President Ibrahim Boubacar Keita.)

Asylum: On July 29, 2011, Ms. Rokia Kone, a woman with albinism from Mali received asylum in France.

Mozambique, 48 reports: (PFI 103 of 180) 16 murders, 13 survivors, 5 grave robberies, 14 missingNOTE: (2 attacks in 2019 to date / 2 attack in 2018 / 9 attacks in 2017 / 11 attacks in 2016 / 20 attacks in 2015 / 1 attack in 2014 / 1 attack in 2011 / 2 attacks in 2009)

Most recent murder: During the weekend of March 1 – 3, 2019, unidentified individuals who are still at large kidnapped and murdered a 12-year-old girl with albinism whose name remains unknown in Chimbonila district, Niassa province, northern Mozambique. The assailants broke into the victim’s home as she and her relatives were sleeping and threatened the family with a weapon before making off with the child. As soon as the incident was reported, the police, with the help of members of the community, began a series of urgent searches which resulted in the finding of the girl’s dismembered torso. (Source: Club of Mozambique – Albino killers strike again in Mozambique, March 4, 2019,https://clubofmozambique.com/news/albino-killers-strike-again-in-mozambique/)

Most recent survivor: On January 15, 2018, Mozambican police announced that it had aborted an attempt to kidnap an 11 year child with albinism in the central province of Zambezia, near the border of Malawi, Mozambique. The child had been targeted by a gang of five traffickers in human body parts. By the time police were able to intervene and rescue the child; the gang had shaved his head and cut off his ears. “We are on the trail of the other members of this gang believed to be those who ordered this macabre crime”, said Zambezia provincial police spokesperson Miguel Caetano at a Monday press conference in Quelimane, the provincial capital. (Source: CLUB OF MOZAMBIQUE: Police rescue albino child from traffickers; Source: AIM; January 16, 2018; http://clubofmozambique.com/news/police-rescue-albino- child-from-traffickers/)

Most recent grave robbery: During the first week of May, 2016, the grave of a man with albinism was violated and robbed in a family cemetery in the northern city of Nampula neighbourhood of Namutequliua, Mozambique. The grave raiders allegedly removed the body, cut off the arms, and then dumped the rest of the body in a bush near the cemetery. On May 11, 2016, Nampula provincial police spokesperson Zacarias Nacute reported that Mozambican police arrested eight people for tampering with the grave. Police said the grave contained the body of an albino citizen and the gang raided it to steal body parts. Thanks to the investigations undertaken by the police, it was possible first to arrest three of the suspects who had a bag containing 16 fragments of bone from the body. Later we managed to arrest the other five criminals, said Nacute. The public broadcaster reported that the suspects confessed to the crime. Two of the grave robbers were witchdoctors, recruited both to assist in selling the bones, and to use magic that would prevent the criminals from being caught. (Source: StarAfrica.com; Mozambique nabs eight for inteferring with albino grave; May 12, 2016; Posted by APA; http://en.starafrica.com/news/mozambique- nabs-eight-for-inteferring-with-albino-grave.html)

Most recent missing: On February 28, 2019, a six-year-old boy with albinism whose name remains unknown was kidnapped near the community of Larde, Moma District, Nampula Province in north-eastern Mozambique. Apparently three criminals decided to attack after discovering that the child would be at home alone with their elderly grandmother. According to newspaper sources, the grandmother could not identify the people who had kidnapped her grandson, but the truth is that she knows the three men. The whereabouts of the unidentified attackers remains unknown. The Mozambican police (PRM) in Nampula province say they are already investigating the case for possible arrest and criminal responsibility of the kidnappers. “We have already referred this case to the Public Prosecutor’s Office, but we also continue to investigate the case,” said Zacarias Nacute, a PRM spokesman in Nampula. (Source: A Facebook post made by Kanimambo Albinism Group in Mozambique on March 4, 2019, titled Kanimambo – Associacao de Apoio ao Albinismo, https://www.facebook.com/MKanimambo/; Google Translator: IKWELI – ALBINOS AGAIN HAVE DIFFICULT DAYS IN NAMPULA; March 5, 2019, https://www.ikweli.co.mz/2019/03/05/albinos-voltam-a-ter-dias-dificeis-em-nampula/)

Namibia, 3 reports: (PFI 23 of 180) 1 survivor / 2 killings

Most recent killing: In June of 2010 Ananias Shifotoka, a young man with albinism
from Uukwiyuwuushona Village in Oshikoto Region was found brutally murdered days after he went missing. His decomposing body was found in a bush cut into pieces with his head removed as well as his genitals, tongue, hands and toes missing. (Source: NEW ERA News Paper for a New Namibia, 29-June- 2010)

Most recent survivor: On Saturday, May 12, 2012 a 16 year old girl with albinism
claims to have been raped by 44 year old man. Prior to the rape he had been visiting the victim and enticed her with money and promises of a shiny car, cattle and marriage. They went for a ride that day and on their return to the village, the accused forced his victim into one of his abandoned buildings, where he is alleged to have raped her. This was confirmed by the victim herself. On Monday, May 21 2012 the suspected rapist was denied bail in Oshakati Magistrate Court. The accused, Jonas Mathias, known as Iingumu Netsali (44), was from a village near Ongwediva where he was arrested by the police. The case of Mathias was postponed by Magistrate Mika Namweya to 27 June 2012 for further investigation. (Source: Informante’, May 23, 2012)

Niger, 1 report: (PFI 66 of 180) 1 missing

Missing & Presumed Dead – On the 17th day of the 2012 Islamic month of Ramadan in Niger (likely August 6, 2012), a young man born with albinism in 1986 by the name of Seyni Hama went missing in the ward of Dar es Salam in the capital city of Niamey, Niger. He has not been seen since. On September 13 & 20, 2014, Ms. Kadidjatou Moumouni, leader and founder of the PWA association in Niger interviewed the victims’ family and neighbours to confirm Seyni’s disappearance. Both parties told her that the abduction did in fact take place. At the time Seyni went missing, his family reported the case to the Police who did their investigation, but sadly were not able to find him. Two of Seyni’s brothers also have albinism. (Source: On September 20, 2014, UTSS interviewed Ms. Kadidjatou Moumouni, leader and founder of the PWA group in Niger; ANAN Niger – anan2013.niger@yahoo.com)

Nigeria, 12 reports: (PFI 120 of 180) 4 killings / 1 missing / 5 asylums / 2 survivors

Most recent killing: In April of 2013 a woman with albinism was found dead with some
of her body organs missing at Okuta, a border town at Baruten Local Government Area of Kwara State, Nigeria. (Source: TheGuardian Nigeria, Friday, April 19, 2013, 19:32; From Abiodun Fagbemi, Ilorin)

Missing report: In April of 2013 a woman with albinism went missing according to her relatives. She was a resident around Saw Mill area in the city of Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria. (Source: TheGuardian Nigeria, Friday, April 19, 2013, 19:32; From Abiodun Fagbemi, Ilorin)

Most recent asylum: On February 13, 2017, a Judge in France recognizes refugee status to a Nigerian man with albinism who was stigmatized and a victim of persecutions in his homeland. (Source: COUR NATIONALE DU DROIT D’ASILE; 14 février 2017; http://www.cnda.fr/Ressources- juridiques-et-geopolitiques/Actualite-jurisprudentielle/Selection-de-decisions-de-la-CNDA/Nigeria- le-juge-de-l-asile-reconnait-la-qualite-de-refugie-a-un-demandeur-d-asile-stigmatise-et-victime-de- persecutions-du-fait-de-son-appartenance-au-groupe-social-des-albinos; Court’s decision: http://www.cnda.fr/content/download/91325/876093/version/1/file/CNDA%2013%20février%202017%20 M.%20E.%20n°%2016017097%20C.pdf)

Rwanda, 1 report: (PFI 155 0f 180) 1 grave robbery
On July 2, 2013
, authorities of the Macuba sector in Nyamasheke district in Rwanda were notified that the grave of Nyirahakuzimana Consolee, a woman with albinism buried eight months earlier, had been found desecrated and empty. Nyamasheke district mayor, Habyarimana Jean Baptiste, confirmed the grave tampering. He noted that it was difficult to determine who was behind the incidence, but that the coffin and cloths of the deceased were found scattered about 700 meters from the grave. (Source: Online media: Œil d’Afrique – Article published on July 03, 2013 http://oeildafrique.com/le-cadavre-dun-albinos- vole-au-rwanda/ ; IGIHE.com Published on 3-07-2013 http://en.igihe.com/news/body-of-albino-stolen- from-grave.html)

Senegal, 9 reports: (PFI 49 of 180) 3 alleged killings / 4 survivors / 2 asylum
3 alleged killings: 
Three unproven murders of people with albinism are alleged to be linked to the March, 2012 elections in Senegal. Several different sources have purported 1 killing in 2012 and 2 killings in 2010. These charges were actually made by President Abdoulaye Wade but apparently not at the same time:

  • –  In 2012 during the electoral campaign, President Abdoulaye said before the steering committee of his ownpolitical party (the Senegalese Democratic Party PDS): “Some people told me that Pape DIOP killed a PWA they brought from Mali”(Source – Article: “Another GRAVE revelation from Wade”, Wednesday, May 30, 2012, http://www.rewmi.com/ & Article: “MEETING OF THE STEERING COMMITTEE OF THE PDS: Wade accuses Pape Diop of killing an albino”, Wednesday May 30, 2012, http://www.walf- groupe.com/ )
  • –  In July of 2010 Abdoulaye Wade accused the regime of his predecessor Abdou DIOUF and his political party, the Socialist Party (PS), “of the mysterious deaths of two young female albinos whose disappearance was never clarified”. (Source – WikiLeaks, December 17, 2010)

Most recent survivor: On September 8, 2014, an 8 year old boy with albinism by the name of Mohamed Diop was fortunately released by his kidnappers in Thies, a city located about 70 km East of Dakar, the capital city of Senegal. Mohamed was on his way home when accosted by occupants in a black 4×4 who forced him into the vehicle and drove away. Providentially a local-taxi driver witnessed the scene and gave chase while raising the alarm. This alerted people near the vehicle and the assailants ending up stopping and throwing the boy out. Mohamed was then taken to his mother by the taxi driver. (Source: Report received by UTSS on Friday, January 16, 2015 from Mr. Mouhamadou Bamba Diop, Chairperson of the Senegal PWA Group – association nationale des albinos du Sénégal – ANAS)

AsylumOn June 17, 2015, legal history was made yet again in the USA when a man with albinism from Senegal (he wishes to remain anonymous) who underwent severe persecution due to his albinism was granted asylum in New York City, New York. (Source: His lawyer at Fried, Frank, Harris, Shriver & Jacobson LLP, One New York Plaza, New York, NY 10004; friedfrank.com)

South Africa, 9 reports: (PFI 31 of 180) 4 killings / 2 missing / 2 survivors / 1 grave robbery

Most recent killing: On January 28, 2018, a 14 year old girl with albinism by the name of Gabisile Simphiwe Shabani was abducted and later killed in Hlalanikahle Township -Witbank Mpumalanga, South Africa. The family woke up to the sound of commotion made by three men breaking a window and entering at gun point to abduct Gabisile. They also took her 15-month old nephew, Nkosikhona Ngwenya‚ who did not have albinism but was allegedly mistaken for another child from the same household who also has albinism. Gabisile’s young body was found 3 weeks later on February 21. The remains indicated that she had been decapitated, with her arms and private parts removed. The shallow grave was discovered in Cullinan Pretoria which is about 81 km way from her home. The infant was discovered on the N4 highway with exact location not disclosed. On February 20, 2018, Thokozani Msibi (32), a traditional healer from Swaziland living in South Africa, was arrested after police found a human head and other human body parts at his home. He confessed to the brutal killing of the two children and identified the location of the shallow grave. He appeared in Witbank Magistrate’s Court at which time he was also applying for bail which Magistrate Darleen Venter denied. The first court appearance was on February 21, 2018, where he was remanded in custody with the second court appearance on February 27, 2018. The next court date was on the 6th of March, 2018, with investigations still ongoing since the other two suspects have not been apprehended. (Source: Sent February 28, 2018 by Commissioner Nomasonto G. Mazibuko; National Director; Albinism Society of South Africa; 187 Lara’s Place , Bree Street; Johannesburg, 2000; Tel: +2711 838-6529; Fax: +2711 492-0276; Mobile: +2782 755-3884; Email: mazibukong@gmail.com; www.albinism.org.za; and; IOL; Police find two bodies believed to be linked to albino abduction case; February 22, 2018; https://www.iol.co.za/news/south-africa/mpumalanga/police- find-two-bodies-believed-to-be-linked-to-albino-abduction-case-13412236; and TheCitizen (ANA); Family of murdered Mpumalanga children, one an albino, live in fear; February 24, 2018; by Balise Mabona; https://citizen.co.za/news/south-africa/1833571/family-of-murdered-mpumalanga-children-one- an-albino-live-in-fear/ ; and IOL; WATCH: Human head, body parts found at murder; March 6, 2018; ANA Reporter; https://www.iol.co.za/news/south-africa/mpumalanga/watch-human-head-body-parts- found-at-murder-accuseds-home-13626375; TimesLIVE; Horror as albino corpse’s body parts stolen; 15 March 2018; BY KGAUGELO MASWENENG; https://www.timeslive.co.za/news/south-africa/2018-03- 15-horror-as-albino-corpses-body-parts-stolen/)

Most recent survivor: On June 28, 2016, a 12 year old boy with albinism went missing but days later was found and survived an attempted sale for ritual purposes in the little town of eManguzi in the northern province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, just 15 kilometers from the Mozambique border. On July 6, 2016, SABC NEWS reported that Provincial police spokesperson Nqobile Gwala says the suspect, a 28-year-old woman, was arrested last week at eManguzi after attempting to sell a 12-year old boy with albinism for R 100 000. The arrest resulted after the traditional healer she was trying to sell the child to, James Mthembu, alerted the police and a trap was set. Mthembu said that when the woman offered him the children, he played along, before going to the Child Protection and Sexual Offences Investigations Unit at Jozini, which set up a sting operation with detectives from Richards Bay. Mthembu is known for his stance against the killing of albinos for muti purposes and has led marches to the magistrate’s courts. The suspect’s attempts for bail have been denied in Ubombo Magistrate’s Court, and she is still in custody. The little boy has been reunited with his family and is receiving counselling. (Source: SABC NEWS; Woman jailed for trying to sell a child with albinism; July 6, 2016; http://www.sabc.co.za/news/a/f92df9004d640599ae01ee4b5facb1b5/Woman-jailed-for-trying-to-sell-a- child-with-albinism-20160706; iolNews: Can I sell you an albino child?; July 9, 2016; by Staff Reporter; http://www.iol.co.za/news/crime-courts/can-i-sell-you-an-albino-child-2043617; News24: Praise after one albino child saved, but second still missing; by Sabelo Nsele; July 7, 2016;http://www.news24.com/SouthAfrica/News/praise-after-one-albino-child-saved-second-still-missing- 20160706; This attack was confirmed on July 27, 2016, by the office of Commissioner Nomasonto G. Mazibuko, National Director of the Albinism Society of South Africa, 187 Lara’s Place, Bree Street, Johannesburg, 2000, Tel: +2711 838-6529, Fax: +2711 492-0276, Mobile: +2782 755-3884, Email: mazibukong@gmail.com, www.albinism.org.za)

Most recent missing: On June 21, 2016, a 4 year old boy with albinism by the name of Maneliswa Ntombela, also known as Mlungu, was kidnapped and is still missing from Port Dunford near Richards Bay, Mkhoboza at eSikhaleni, outside eMpangeni in the north of the KwaZulu-Natal province in South Africa. The family says that Mlungu was playing with his cousin at a church several meters from his home. The victim’s cousin told Mlungu’s mother, Qhaphi Ntombela, that two men abducted him and they also referred to him by name. On Friday police arrested a 28-year-old woman in Emanguzi while looking for Mlungu saying their investigation revealed the woman had been arranging to sell another child with albinism in the area for R100 000 to a local traditional healer. They suspect she may also be involved with Mlungu’s disappearance. His mother is pleased with the latest development in the case saying “I hadn’t heard of the arrest from police. I’ve no words to describe how I feel about the arrest but I haven’t lost hope and I won’t ever lose hope”. As of July 27, 2016, police are still busy following leads but little Mlungu is still missing. The Albinism Society of South Africa is also monitoring this case and we will keep UTSS informed. (Source: RadioVoP: Shock As Albino Boy Kidnapped In South Africa’s KZN; June 27, 2016; http://www.radiovop.com/index.php/africans-news/14008-shock-as-albino-boy-kidnapped-in-south-africa- s-kzn.html & ECRnews: Mother’s last hope to find missing Esikhawini boy: July 6, 2016; by Anelisa Kubheka; https://www.ecr.co.za/news-sport/news/mothers-last-hope-find-missing-esikhawini-boy/; News24: Praise after one albino child saved, but second still missing; by Sabelo Nsele; July 7, 2016; http://www.news24.com/SouthAfrica/News/praise-after-one-albino-child-saved-second-still-missing- 20160706; iolNews: Can I sell you an albino child?; July 9, 2016; by Staff Reporter; http://www.iol.co.za/news/crime-courts/can-i-sell-you-an-albino-child-2043617; This attack was confirmed on July 27, 2016, by the office of Commissioner Nomasonto G. Mazibuko, National Director of the Albinism Society of South Africa, 187 Lara’s Place, Bree Street, Johannesburg, 2000, Tel: +2711 838- 6529, Fax: +2711 492-0276, Mobile: +2782 755-3884, Email: mazibukong@gmail.com, www.albinism.org.za)

Swaziland (Eswatini), 11 reports: (PFI 147 of 180) 3 killings / 7 survivors

Most recent killings: In May of 2016 in Nkoyoyo, Swaziland, a man with albinism by the name of Sipho Mahlalela was murdered by his wife, Pinky Zikalala. She hired 2 men to kill her husband and then tried to sell his corpse to a traditional healer (name withheld) who allegedly entered into an agreement with her. He is now the subject of intense police investigation. The wife along with the two men have since been arrested and charged for the murder. Prior to their arrest, Pinky Zikalala took the traditional healer to see the corpse at which time she asked to be paid for keeping her end of the agreement. The traditional healer is said to have backed out of the deal because he wanted Mahlalela to be brought to him alive since he needed the blood of a person with albinism for ritual purposes. (Source: TIMES OF SWAZILAND; WIFE ACCUSED OF SELLING ALBINO’S CORPSE TO INYANGA; May 27, 2016; BY THEMBINKOSI MAVIMBELA; http://www.times.co.sz/news/108061-wife-accused-of-selling-albino%E2%80%99s- corpse-to-inyanga.html)

Most recent survivors: 4 SURVIVORS OF THE SAME ATTACK: On September 02, 2013, 4 men with albinism were attacked and seriously injured in the town of Mankayane next to Manzini, in Swaziland. Mr. Vilakati received this information from the victims’ families and reported it to UTSS. He was able to visit 2 of the 4 victims in hospital; one called Thulane (19) and the other Ndzinisa (24); the other 2 remain unidentified. (Source: Mr. Dalton Vilakati, a PWA and recently appointed Member of Parliament in Swaziland – Phone number: +268-763-604-80)

World Press Freedom Index Trend for Tanzania: 2008 – 70 of 173

2009 – 62 of 175
2010 – 41 of 178
2011 & 12 – 34 of 179 2013 – 70 of 179
2014 – 69 of 180
2015 – 75 of 180
2016 – 71 of 180
2017 – 83 of 180
2018 – 93 of 180
2019 – 118 of 180

Tanzania, 187 reports: (PFI 118 of 180) All Tanzanian information on killings and attacks are gathered by UTSS through its field work and research; reports from victim’s families and police reports in Tanzania.

76 killings
84 survivors; all are deeply traumatized and some severely mutilated 1 missing
23 grave violations
3 asylums

Most recent killing: On Tuesday, February 17, 2015, the mutilated remains of a 1 year old baby boy with albinism by the name of Yohana Bahati were discovered by police in Shilabela Mapinduzi Sub-Village, a few kilometers from his home in Isabilo Sub-Vilage of Ilelema Village, Iparamasa Ward of Chato District, Geita Region, Tanzania. Both of Yohana’s arms and legs were hacked off. Two days earlier five unidentified men armed with machetes attacked the homestead. Three of them seized Misalaba (father) while two of them forced their way into the house where Ester (mother) was preparing the evening meal. Misalaba managed to fight off the attackers and ran away leaving his wife behind with two children with albinism, one year old Yohana and his 3 year old sister Tabu. One of the assailants slashed Ester’s face and body rendering her unconscious while the second grabbed little Yohana and ran away. Ester remained in serious condition in Bugando Referral Hospital in Mwanza City even after doctors operated on the machete lacerations sustained while trying in vain to protect her baby boy. A police search is underway and Yohana’s father is being held in remand prison. No other arrests have been made at the time of this report. (SOURCE: UTSS interviews with Deputy Director of Public Prosecution Ms. Neema Ringo in Dar es Salaam and Iparamasa Ward Executive Officer (WEO), Christopher Mabuba who confirmed the attack.)

Most recent survivor: On January 15, 2019, there was a failed kidnapping attempt perpetrated against a 19 year old man with albinism by the name of Eliya Sambeke Mollel in Ndulele village, Naiyobi Ward, Ngorongoro District in the Arusha Region of Tanzania. At 4:00 PM on that day Eliya was grazing cattle under the scorching sun when 2 strangers gave chase with obvious intentions to harm him.

Fortunately he was able to outrun them and hide. When he finally made his way home and inform his mother, she told him to prepare for a trip to Loliondo District to seek help. They woke early the following morning and walked over 50 kilometers to the village of Ngaraselo where they caught the nearest coach to Loliondo. Eliya is part of a Maasai family where his father, Sambeke Mollel, has 19 children from 4 wives. Eliya is the only one with albinism. While his mother loves him, his father has rejected him and forbidden his mother to help in any way. In addition to the rejection, his father attempted to attack him with a machete and told his mother he would do the same to her if she got involved. While Eliya is not loved, welcome or safe in his own home, he is safer now that he has been brought to Loliondo Town Council by his mother to meet the Social Welfare Officer. He was given sanctuary by a Good Samaritan more than 300 kilometers from his home. Elia told UTSS that if he goes back to school he will make sure he passes all of his exams because he wants to become a doctor. He is ready to go back to school and hopes to attend a special program at a school in Kilimanjaro where older students like him are accommodated in completing their education prior to university. At the time of this report the two unknown criminals were still at large but the following people are aware of the attack and planning to investigate; OC CID Ngorongoro Superintendent of Police (SP) Mathayo – 0784912330/0768056462; Assistant Inspector of Police Samweli Kichambati Ngorongoro – 0689976325/0754801554; and Police Officer Daniel Shija Ngorongoro Conservation – 0758714671. (Source: On January 19, 2019, UTSS was notified about this attack by the Ngorongoro District Social Welfare Officer – SWO and the Police in Ngorongoro District. Our First Response Team visited the scene of the crime from January 23 – 26, 2019, and interviewed the SWO in Ngorongoro as well as the Police in Ngorongoro, the Ndulele Village Chairperson, and the Naiyobi Village Executive Officer – VEO and Ward Executive Officer – WEO)

Second most recent survivor: THIS CASE COUNTS AS 3 ATTACKS: On January, 5, 2019, there was a failed kidnapping attempt perpetrated against a 7 year old boy with albinism by the name of Alphonce Paul George in Kawekamo Village, Fukalo Ward, Subdivision of Mwambashimba in Kwimba District, in the Mwanza Region of Tanzania. Alphonce has been living with his grandmother, Mrs. Lejina Mayeka, since the age of three when his parents, Mrs. Neema Marko (25) and Mr. Paul George, moved away and left him in her care. She told UTSS that her little grandson has now miraculously escaped three kidnapping attempts, the first in 2015 at the age of 3, the second on August 16, 2018, at the age of 6 and now this most recent one at age 7. After the first attempt, the grandmother tried to get Alphonce enrolled at Mitindo Primary School, a special needs government school that also serves as a sanctuary for children with albinism who are at risk. They refused to accept Alphonce saying that he was too young. After the second kidnapping attempt in August of 2018, she reported the matter to the Village Executive Officer (VEO), Mr. Sanda Henry who immediately reported it to the Hungumalwa Police Post as well as the Kwimba District Commissioner (DC) and the office of Social Welfare Officer, requesting Alphonce be admitted into the Mitindo School. A prompt response from the DC’s office ensured that he was admitted into Mitindo School on August 30, 2018. Grandmother went on to say that the third and most recent attempt, in January of 2019, occurred while Alphonce was at home on school break with only two days remaining before he was to return. Alphonce is once again safe at Mitindo Primary School in Mwanza where he has been enrolled as a kindergarten pupil for the 2019 academic year. UTSS First Response Team visited little Alphonce at Mitindo Special Need School and met with the school’s Head Teacher, Madam Jane D. Kibungi who said Alphonce is very charming and intelligent. She is proud to have Alphonce in her school and hopes he will succeed in his long academic journey. Because the attackers are still at large, UTSS has advised both the grandmother and the Tanzania Albinism Society Chairman for Mwanza, Mr. Alfred Kapole, to follow up with this case to ensure they get the RB case number since it has been reported to the police. For more specific information about each of the 3 attacks, please contact UTSS atinfo@underthesamesun.com. (Source: On January 19, 2019, UTSS was notified about the attack by the Tanzania Albinism Society (TAS) Chairman for Mwanza, Mr. Alfred Kapole 0763831793. UTSS First Response Team visited the scene of the crime on January 28 – 29, 2019, and interviewed Alphonce’s grandmother, Mrs. Lejina Mayeka – 0746213773; Kawekamo Village Executive Officer, Mr. Sanda Henry – 062951583; Sungusungu Secretary Kawekamo, Mr. Richard Makaji Lutema – 0763814259 and Mitindo Head teacher, Mrs. Jane Kabungi – 0764601106)

Most recent survivor of rape: On October 20, 2017, a thirty year old woman with albinism by the name of Zainabu Kulandeya survived an attempted rape by Bundala Luhende, age 20, at around 11:00 AM at her parents’ house in Mhunze Village, Kishapu District, Shinyanga Region, northwestern Tanzania. That day Zainabu was home alone when the perpetrator, who was unknown to them and not from their neighbourhood, arrived at the door claiming to be hungry and in need of food. When Zainabu told him that there was no food in the house he proceeded to offer her money in exchange for sexual favours. She declined and asked him to leave, at which time the man started forcing himself on her. Zainabu began to scream and a neighbour came to her rescue. The criminal escaped but was chased down by villagers, captured and handed over to the police. The perpetrator is now in custody at Kishapu Police Station waiting to be arraigned in court on November 07, 2017. While Zainabu survived and is safe and in the care of her parents, she is frightened and psychologically affected by the whole ordeal! The UTSS First Response Team has asked the Kishapu District Commissioner to ensure that Zainabu gets proper counseling and sent to a Vocational Training Centre where she can do something that would generate income instead of staying at home in isolation. They also asked the Community Development Officer to link her with a women’s self- help group. (Source: Initial report on October 25, 2017, from partners in the Kagera Region and the Tanzania Albinism Society (TAS) in Simiyu. On October 27 – 30, 2017, the UTSS First Response Team visited and interviewed the victim, her family, neighbours, police, social welfare department, community development department and the offices of the District Commissioner and District Executive Director after which an Understanding Albinism Seminar was also conducted for all.)

Most recent missing: On December 27, 2014, a 4 year old girl with albinism by the name of Pendo Emmanuel was abducted in Ndamhi Village of Fukalo Ward, Kwimba District, Mwanza Region, Tanzania. The police have arrested 15 suspects in connection with the kidnapping. Three of the arrestees are relatives: Pendo’s paternal grandfather, maternal grandfather and her mother. Due to the fact that her mother had just given birth to a baby girl with albinism and prison would not be appropriate for the baby, the Mwanza Regional Commissioner has ordered them to be sent to an alternative secured environment. The police have also set up a search party to look for Pendo. (Source: UTSS interview with Tanzanian police and Ndamhi Village Executive Officer as well as newspapers reports including: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/wires/afp/article-2903078/UN-demands-investigation-albino-girl- abduction.html; http://allafrica.com/stories/201501080704.html;http://dailynews.co.tz/index.php/dailynews/39960-proven-albino-killers-must-be-severely-punhed; http://www.dailynews.co.tz/index.php/local-news/40153-rc-gives-mwanza-village-five-days-to-find-msing- albino-girl; http://www.ippmedia.com/frontend/index.php?l=76048)

Most recent grave violation: On the night of April 23, 2019, the remains of a deceased man with albinism by the name of Amani Anyelwisye Kalyembe, who had been buried on February 7, 2015, were exhumed and stolen from his grave by unidentified criminals in the Mahenge suburb, Ibililo Village, Nkunga Ward, Rungwe District, Mbeya Region in the south of Tanzania. One of the relatives of the late Amani was implicated and he is under police custody. Amani’s father, Ngumbe Kalyembe Ndumbo, is so old that he couldn’t remember his own age. During the night of the robbery, criminals locked the doors of his house from outside. He was not aware of this since he was fast asleep. It wasn’t until in the morning that he realized the grave of his son, which is on his property, had been disturbed. The matter was reported to the Kiwira Police Station who in turn went to the scene of the incident. After several consultations the police decided to unearth the already disturbed grave to find out exactly what had happened. They found an empty casket with the remains stolen. Amini’s father said that before the police left the scene, they ordered local leaders to arrange a villagers meeting in order to identify those responsible. When the meeting was called, the villagers cast their secret ballots and two of the residents of Mahenge suburb were implicated, one of who was Amani’s young brother, Baraka Anyelwisye Kalyembe. He is currently under police custody for further investigations. The second accused person is said to have fled to an unknown destination. The Ibililo Village Executive Officer (VEO), Jane John Mwalukindu, together with Ibililo Village Chairman, Mpoki Wilson Mwambakila, said the incident has not only shocked the family but also the villagers at large, including government leaders at all levels of administration in the region of Mbeya.

They are still wondering how intruders could come all the way to their village and commit such a serious offence without being noticed by the villagers! “These strangers could not be alone. I know some of the villagers helped them. We will deal with it.” Jane Mwalukindu insisted. (Sources: April 24th, 2019, a UTSS resource person in Mbeya, William Simwali, called in this report; Nairobi (AFP): Tanzania albinos say they fear for lives after exhumation, April 28, 2019, https://news.yahoo.com/tanzania-albinos-fear-lives- exhumation-135245156.html; From April 29 to May 3rd, 2019, the UTSS First Response Mission investigated and Reported on the grave robbery in Mahenge Suburb, Ibililo Village in Rungwe District – Mbeya Region, conducting interviews with the Ibililo Village Chairman, Mpoki Wilson Mwambakila – 0769405031, Ibililo Village Executive Officer, Jane John Mwalukindu – 0753173452, Amani’s father, Ngumbe Kalyembe Ndumbo; and Tanzania Albinism Society Chairman in Rungwe District, Abraham Mwambungu – 0766271589)

3 asylums:
On July 28, 2017, 
a man with albinism from Tanzania was granted refugee status in Vancouver, Canada.
On June 27, 2017, a man with albinism from Tanzania was granted asylum in Chicago, Illinois.
On July 27, 2016, two sisters with albinism from Tanzania who underwent brutal attack and profound discrimination due to their albinism were granted asylum in the state of California, USA.

NOTE: The first actual police documented murder of PWA in Tanzania was that of Arif in 2006.

Togo, 1 report: (PFI 76 of 180) 1 killing
Most recent killing: On September 23, 2017
, a 2 year old boy with albinism by the name of Nanhladja Monnoble was reported missing between 8:00 and 9:00 PM in the city of Dapaong in the locality of Pana Bagou in northern Togo, West Africa. The little boy was later found dead and burried. It was reported that the victim’s body was supposed to be exhumed on the third day following his burial and taken to the neighbouring country of Benin to serve in witchcraft practices for the purpose of bringing riches. Some of the 4 suspected murderers have been arrested and are currently in the hands of the local police. The Togo Albinism Association ANAT says “We have a video footage of the burial of the little boy. We firmly condemn this act and demand your support to say NO to these acts in our country.” (Source: UTSS was contacted on September 28, 2017, by the Togo Albinism Association: Association nationale des albinos du Togo (ANAT); Chairperson: Mr. Souradji OURO-YONDOU; Secretary: Mr. Abdoul Karim Nassirou; Email address: albitogo@yahoo.fr)

Uganda, 8 reports: (PFI 125 of 180) 8 survivors

Most recent survivor: This report counts as 2 separate PWA attacks – On October 7, 2016, 2 boys with albinism were kidnapped in the village of Bujuko in Central Uganda. They are part of a family with many children among whom four have albinism. The mother is facing many challenges after separating from her husband who wanted to sacrifice one of the children with albinism. The kidnapping occurred while four of the siblings were on their way to school and the two older boys were blindfolded with handkerchiefs believed to have chemicals on them. Some people saw the boys in a taxi and telephoned their mother asking if she knew where the boys were going. Oblivious of the situation, she denied that they were her children but the other person insisted on their identity. A one and a half day search began for the boys who were miraculously found alive and well in a medium income Kampala suburb looking for their way home. It was a long search using police, local radio stations and word of mouth. The case is still under investigation and a lot of information is not yet available. (Source: Olive Namutebi; October 17, 2016; African Albino Foundation Uganda – AAFU had been supporting the family for over 3 years prior to this attack; Email: albinofoundation.uganda@gmail.com; Website: https://albinofoundationuganda.wordpress.com/)

USA, 2 reports: (PFI 48 of 180) 2 survivors 

Omitted. See the original reports for details. (webmaster FVDK)

Zambia, 13 reports: (PFI 119 of 180) 6 killings / 5 survivors / 2 grave robberies

Most recent killing: On December 22, 2015, a 36 year old man with albinism by the name of Jeffrey Sikanyai was attacked & killed in Mandevu, Lusaka’s Zani Muone West area, Zambia. He was left to die after his right forearm was cut off, most likely with an axe, for what appears to be ritual purposes. His body was found on the roadside the morning after his attack. Jeffrey was well-known in the area, and his family and friends said they were shocked by the death as he was very friendly. “We wouldn’t say he had any enemies. He was friendly with most people. Also, his movements and whereabouts were predictable.” (Source: Zambia Daily Mail; Albino killed, arm chopped; by Online Editor KELVIN KACHINGWE, Lusaka; Posted in Editor’s Choice, News on December 24, 2015; https://www.daily- mail.co.zm/?p=53668)

Most recent survivor: On November 4, 2017, a 19 -year- old woman with albinism by the name of Miriam Kumwenda survived a brutal attack where her right hand was chopped off by unknown assailants in Buyoyo Village, Chief Chikwa’s chiefdom, Chama District, Muchinga Province, Zambia. Narrating the ordeal from her bed in the Chama District Hospital, Miriam told Zambia News and Information Services (ZANIS) that she was attacked the previous Saturday night. Arroused from sleep by a knock at the door, she inquired who it was. A man who identified himself as a Mr. Nkhowani asked her to be let in but she ignored the request. The attacker then forced an entry, covered her mouth with a cloth to prevent screaming and carried her into the bush. Once in the bush other attackers appeared and started beating her up. When they started cutting her left arm one of them said that it is the right hand that was needed and her left arm was to remain intact. At this pointed she was hit on the head and lost consciousness. The assailants left her for dead. When she came too, Miriam started crying. Her parent found her later and rushed her to a nearby health center for medical attention. The Chama Police have been notified and said they are investigating the matter, referring all queries to Police Commissioner Godwin Phiri who could not be reached for a comment by broadcast time. Police sources said that two suspects are currently in custody while the other is on the run. (Source: Lusakatimes.com; An unknown people attack an Albino adolescent girl in Chama District; November 7, 2017; https://www.lusakatimes.com/2017/11/07/unknown-people-attack-albino-adolescent-girl-chama-district/)

Most Recent Grave Robbery: On an unknown date between June 23 and October 30, 2018, the grave of a woman with albinism by the name of Judith Mwanza was violated in the Nyimba district within the Eastern Province of Zambia. Eastern Province police commissioner Luckson Sakala said that Judith Mwanza died on June 21 at the age of 54 and was buried on June 23, 2018. Police have launched a manhunt for the people responsible. Sakala also said Nyimba District Council Chairperson Maxwell Kapanta reported to police that some unknown people had trespassed on the Chipambe graveyard sometime between the burial on June 23 and the discovery on October 30, 2018. Police visited the scene and found that Judith’s grave was tempered with and that “After a physical check, the police officers’ discovered that in the coffin there were two pieces of Chitenge material, a blanket, a skirt, used gloves and a blouse but the body was missing.” (Source: Albino Exhumed in Nyimba; October 31, 2018; by Chris Phiri; Zambia Reports: https://zambiareports.com/2018/10/31/albino-exhumed- nyimba/?fbclid=IwAR2ySEv9jR9F88nlS95LUhED5cMmeQ_sNqX2-ErZBc0ESxzH_ZZlk2s1zzI)

Second Most Recent Grave Robbery – On Saturday, January 27, 2018, relatives of Mr. Leonard Kombelwa, a deceased person with albinism, noticed that the grave in Mutuwambwa village, Western Zambia, had been tampered with and reported the matter to the police. Investigations found that the casket, together with the body, was missing. Mr. Kombelwa died of skin cancer at the age of 75 and was buried in his home village on August 4, 2016. So far one suspect has been caught and Police are hunting for two others. (Source: bbc.com; Grave robbers steal albino body in ZambiaJanuary 30, 2018; By Kennedy Gondwe; Lusaka; http://www.bbc.com/news/live/world-africa- 42461098?ns_mchannel=social&ns_source=twitter&ns_campaign=bbc_live&ns_linkname=5a708f022811 85064bc63fc8%26Grave+robbers+steal+albino+body+in+Zambia%26&ns_fee=0&ocid=socialflow_faceb ook#post_5a708f02281185064bc63fc8 and John Chiti, Executive Director of Albino Foundation of Zambia; February 3, 2018; email: johnchiti@ymail.com; Mobile: +260 977 977 026 and +260 954 095 428; Lusaka Zambia)

Zimbabwe, 2 report: (PFI 127 of 180) 1 killing / 1 asylum
In 2011 the severely mutilated body of a 26 year old woman with albinism was discovered.

Professor John Makumbe was contacted by Zimbabwe police and taken to the morgue to assist in identifying the body. He noted that she had albinism and that her breasts and genitals had been removed. (Source: Professor John Makumbe, a professor of political science at the University of Zimbabwe and president of the Zimbabwe Albino Association (Zimas))

On November 29, 2012, a woman with albinism from Zimbabwe was granted asylum in Atlanta, Georgia. (Source: UTSS served as expert witness in this case)

Source: Reported Attacks of Persons with Albinism – Most Recent Attacks Included By Under The Same Sun (UTSS) Canada & Tanzania

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